221-chapter-9

221-chapter-9 - Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of...

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Unformatted text preview: Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals 1.) Acids and Bases are essential to virtually every application of chemistry Analytical procedures such as chromatography and electrophoresis Protein purification, chemical reactions, environmental issues Urban Stone Decay Pollutants Contribute to Acid Rain Forest Destruction Yellowstone Air Pollution (same view) Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals 2.) Knowledge of Acid-Base Equilibrium is Necessary to Understand: Buffer preparation and pH control Acid-Base Titrations Complexation, etc. Illustration: Blood clot formation on heart valve Milk precipitation on heart valve Protein function and stability depends on pH, temperature and other conditions.- Blood and milk have high protein concentrations- Common problem in mechanical heart valve is clot formation- Protein precipitation from milk provides a cheap and easy mimic of blood clotting for testing new heart valves avoids expensive and long animal studies Protein activity is pH dependent Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals 3.) Strong Acids and Bases Completely dissociates [H 3 O + ] or [OH- ] equals concentration of strong acid or base- What is the pH of a 0.1M solution of HCl?- What is the pH of a 0.1M solution of KOH? 13.00 10 1.0 M 10 1.0 0.10 13 13 = - =- = = = = = = = =- +-- + + M) log( ] log[H pH 10 1 ] [OH ] [H 10 1 ] ][OH [H 0.1M [KOH] ] [OH 14- 14--- w w K K 1.00 M) (0.1 log ] log[H pH M 0.1 [HCl] ] [H =- =- = = = + + Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals 3.) Strong Acids and Bases pH at other concentrations of a strong base Relationship between pH and pOH: [OH- ] (M) [H + ] (M) pH 1x10-1 1x10-13 13.0 1x10-2 1x10-12 12.0 1x10-3 1x10-11 11 1x10-4 1x10-10 10 1x10-5 1x10-9 9 C 25 at 14.00 K log pOH pH o w =- = +- Acid K a HCl 10 3.9 HBr 10 5.8 HI 10 10.4 HNO 3 10 1.4 Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals 3.) Strong Acids and Bases Dilemma: What is the pH of 1.0x10-8 M KOH? 6.00 M) 10 1.0 log( ] log[H pH M 10 1.0 10 .0 1 10 1 ] [OH ] [H M 10 .0 1 [KOH] ] [OH 6 6 8- 14--8- = - =- = = = = = =- +-- + w K How can a base produce an acidic solution? M 10 .0 1 [KOH] ] [OH-8- Wrong Assumption!! Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals 3.) Strong Acids and Bases Wrong Assumption!! For large concentration of acid or base, [H + ] = [acid] or [OH- ] = [base] For small concentration, must account for water dissociation In pure water [OH- ] = 1.0x10-7 M, which is greater than [KOH] = 1x10-8 M Must Use Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals 3.) Strong Acids and Bases Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium Step 1: Pertinent reactions: Step 2: Charge Balance: ] [ ] [ ] [- OH H K = + + + Step 3: Mass Balance: ] [ ] [ 8 10 . 1 K- + = Completely dissociates, not pertinent Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of Fundamentals...
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221-chapter-9 - Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria Review of...

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