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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions and Chemical...

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Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions and Chemical Equilibria Solutions of Electrolytes Electrolytes: Form ions when dissolved in water or other solvents and produce solutions that conduct electricity. Strong Electrolytes: Ionize essentially completely. Strong conductor of electricity. Weak Electrolytes: Ionize only partially. Poorer conductor than strong electrolyte.
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Nonelectrolytes: Are substances that dissolve in water but do not produce any ions and do not conduct an electric current. Acids and Bases: An acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor (Bronsted-Lowry concept). Conjugate Acids and Bases: A conjugate base is the species formed when an acid loses a proton. acid 1 base 1 + proton CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - + H + acid 1 and base 1 are a conjugate acid/base pair
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A conjugate acid is the species formed when a base accepts a proton. base 2 + proton acid 2 When two processes are combined, the result is an acid/base or neutralization reaction. NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - base 1 acid 2 conjugate acid 1 conjugate base 2 Amphiprotic Solvents: A solvent that can act either as an acid or as a base depending on the solute. Water is the classic example.
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NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - base 1 acid 2 c. acid 1 c. base 2 H 2 O + HNO 2 H 3 O + + NO 2 - base 1 acid 2 c. acid 1 c. base 2 NH 3 + CH 3 OH NH 4 + + CH 3 O - base 1 acid 2 c. acid
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