Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Application of Neutralization...

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Chapter 16 Application of Neutralization Titrations Neutralization titrations are widely used to determine the concentration of analytes that are themselves acids or bases or that are convertible to such species by suitable treatment. Water is the usual solvent for neutralization titrations because it is readily available, inexpensive, and nontoxic. Its low coefficient of expansion with temperature is an added virtue. Some analytes, however, are not titratable in aqueous media because their solubilities are too low. Nonaqueous solvents such as methyl and ethyl alcohol, glacial acetic acid, and methyl isobutyl ketone often make it possible to titrate such analytes in a solvent other than water.
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Preparing Standard Acid Solutions Hydrochloric acid is widely used for titration of bases. Dilute solutions of HCl are stable indefinitely and do not cause troublesome precipitation reactions with most cations. Solutions of perchloric acid and sulfuric acid are also stable and are useful for titrations where chloride ion interferes by forming precipitates. Standard solutions of nitric acid are seldom encountered because of their oxidizing properties. Standard acid solutions are ordinarily prepared by diluting an approximate volume of the concentrated reagent and subsequently standardizing the diluted solution against a primary-standard base.
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Standardizing Acids Acids are frequently standardized against weighed quantities of sodium carbonate. Tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, (HOCH 2 ) 3 CNH 2 , known also as TRIS or THAM, is available in primary-standard purity from commercial sources. It possesses the advantage of a substantially greater mass per mole of protons consumed (121.1) than sodium carbonate (53.0).
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