Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction Analytical Chemistry...

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Chapter 1 Introduction Analytical Chemistry deals with methods for determining the chemical composition of samples. Qualitative Analysis (identification) provides information about the identity of species or functional groups in the sample (an analyte can be identified). Quantitative Analysis provides numerical information of analyte (quantitate the exact amount or concentration).
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Analytical Methods Classical Methods : Wet chemical methods such as precipitation, extraction, distillation, boiling or melting points, gravimetric and titrimetric measurements. Instrumental Methods : Analytical measurements (conductivity, electrode potential, light absorption or emission, mass- to-charge ratio, fluorescence etc.) are made using instrumentation.
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Types of Instrumental Methods 1. Spectroscopic methods: a. Atomic spectroscopy b. Molecular spectroscopy 2. Chromatographic methods (separations): 3. Electrochemistry:
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Block diagram of an instrumental measurement
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Block diagram of a fluorometer
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Applications of Instrumental Methods 1. Bioanalytical: biological molecules and/or biological matrices (e.g., proteins, amino acids, blood, urine) 2. Environmental: pesticides, pollution, air, water, soil 3. Material science: polymers, characterization of new materials 4. Forensic science (application of science to the law): body fluids, DNA, gun shot residue, hair, fibers, elemental analysis, drugs, alcohols, poisoning, fingerprints, etc.
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Analytical Methodology 1. Plan: Qualitative or quantitative or both; what kind of information have; which technique is suitable etc. 2. Sampling: Accuracy depends on proper sampling, characteristic of sample is very important, required good representative sample (from top, middle and bottom and mix up and take average sample). 3. Sample preparation: depends on analytical techniques. 4. Analytical measurement: 5. Data Analysis: Whether the data make sense or not.
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Selecting an Analytical Method In order to select an analytical method intelligently, it is essential to define clearly the nature of the analytical problem. In general, the following points should be considered when choosing an instrument for any measurement. 1.
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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction Analytical Chemistry...

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