F_466823_2010-01-07

F_466823_2010-01-07 - \2\) “x thp o Utlmii’éb/...

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Unformatted text preview: \2\) “x thp o Utlmii’éb/ Question 1: i (2 points) Where does gas exchange occur in the lungs? a. the bronchioles b. the larynx d. the pores of Kohn Question 2: (2 points) What permits the process of "collateral ventilation"? a. the pleural sac b. the diaphragm /f\ L,— d. the bronchi Question 3: (2 points) What substance do type II alveolar cells secrete in order to counteract surface tension that would otherwise make breathing too difficult? a. mucus _ c. intrapleural fluid (1. lactic acid Question 4: i (2 points) What is pneumothorax? @— b. inflammation of the pleural sac c. collapse of the lung due to chest wall puncture d. congestion of the trachea Question 5: I (2 points) Which one of the following is an expiratory muscle(s)? 7:\ affrht-dIi-ephnm \, b. the internal intercostal muscles c. the external intercostal muscles \ Qaugsm Question 6: (2 points) 7» - \9 The transmural pressure gradient across the lung wall equals: a. intra-alveolar pressure plus intra-pleural pressure b. atmospheric pressure plus intra-pleural pressure 13.j— ® atmospheric pressure minus intra—pleural pressure Question 7: (2 points) What term is used to describe the volume of air entering or leaving the lungs during one breath? b. . inspiratory capacity c. vital capacity d. residual volume Question 8: (2 points) 1% What is the primary location in the brain stem controlling respiration? a. the apneustic center b. the pneumotaxic center @— d. the pons Question 9: (2 points) (\ The release of lactic acid at the systemic capillaries will: b. . increase the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin c. increase the amount of carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin d. have no effect on hemoglobin's ability to hold either oxygen or carbon dioxide Question 10: a (2 points) \Q Greater alveolar surface tension increases the "compliance" of the lungs. a. True Question 11: (2 points) \ \ Which part of the kidney collects urine after it has been formed? a. the renal cortex b. the renal medulla c. the renal pyramid Question 12: ' (2 points) \ Q What component of a nephron collects glomerular filtrate? b. . the loop of Henle c. the distal tubule d. the juxtaglomerular apparatus Question 13: . (2 points) \ 5 What percentage of the plasma that actually enters the glomerulus is filtered? a. 10% Gina c. 80% d. 90% W‘ ’ Question 14: (2 points) . What cells forming the walls of the distal tubule in the juxtaglomerular apparatus can detect changes in the rate at which fluid flows past them? a. granular cells j b: pm c. \ ls d. .maculadensa ~M— Question 15: (2 points) ,/ What prevents 99% of albumin escaping into Bowman's capsule? \‘5 b. . negatively charged glycoproteins c. collagen ._ ’dQ [arms— Question 16: (2 points) Of the three forces involved in glomerular filtration, which "favors" rather than "opposes" filtration? a. Bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure b. plasma-colloid osmotic pressure C) c- _ d. all of the above "““‘\ Question 17: (2 points) In the myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation, what is the sensory cell type? ’7‘\ W . tubule cells% j c. dfisalls immoom muscle cells 7» «a Question 18: (2 points) Which of the following would NOT affect glomerular oncotic pressure? f a. dehydration hypunatremja y; c. 1W1 hypovolemic shock w Question 19: , (2 points) The point at which the plasma concentration of a particular substance is high enough to cause it to appear in the urine is called: a. the tubular maximum /—. @1— c. . the tubular threshold (1. the renal maximum we. Question 20: (2 points) In what part of the nephron is sodium reabsorption an important aspect of the reabsorption of glucose and amino acids? {Dwale in b. Wide 0. the proximal tubefi j d. all of the above M Question 21: (2 points) To sustain life, the body pH must be maintained within what pH range? a. 7.00 - 7.45 b. 7.00 - 8.00 c. 7.30 - 7.50 Question 22: (2 points) Which of the body's four buffer systems is the primary ICF buffer? a. the carbonic acid:bicarbonate system b. the hemoglobin buffer system Eh d. the phosphate buffer system ~~ Question 23: (2 points) Which is the "last line of defense" against changes in H+? A; tmbafifermaepflmol b. the renal mechanism of buffer control A -~ (1. they are interchangeable responses based on circumstances - Question 24: (2 points) What substance can be secreted into the urine to buffer H+ after the capacity for phosphate buffering has been exceeded? K‘ \ a.— b. carbon anhydrase c. bicarbonate d. plasma proteins Question 25: ' (2 points) A patient presents with a blood pH of 7.29, a PC02 of 55 mmHg, and a high HCO3- of 35 mEq/L. What is happening? a. Respiratory alkalosis p“ . ' . W e. Compensating respiratory alkalosis d. Metabolic acidosis Question 26: (2 points) In an individual with metabolic acidosis, a clue that the respiratory system is compensating is provided by: a. high blood bicarbonate levels b. low blood bicarbonate levels (1. slow, shallow breathing Question 27: (2 points) Which of the following can occur by physiological mechanisms that result from being at high altitude? a. respiratory acidosis M c. metabolic acidosis d. metabolic alkalosis Question 28: (2 points) Metabolic alkalosis involves an excessive: a. decline of HCO3- b. loss of C02 0. retention of CO2 M Question 29: V (2 points) Below what pH level is a state of acidosis said to exist in the blood? a. 7.45 b. 7.00 @- d. 7.40 Question 30: I (2 points) Which is normally the least significant source of H+ to the body fluids? a. carbonic acid formation caused by cell metabolism @— 0. production of inorganic acid by nutrient breakdown d. organic acid production caused by intermediary metabolism Question 31: i (2 points) What are "Peyer's patches"? G:—-—-— b. lymphocytes populating the tonsils and adenoids c. lymphoid tissues that play a pivotal role in processing T and B lymphocytes (1. large, tissue bound phagocytic specialists ~ Question 32: i (2 points) Where in the body is the site of T lymphocyte maturation located? a. the spleen @16 bone marrow d. the peripheral lymphoid tissue Question 33: (2 points) The flow of lymph through the lymph nodes is a. from medulla to cortex b. from efferent vessel to afferent vessel c. circular throughout the germinal centers m Question 34: (2 points) What is interferon? a. a family of proteins that respond non-specifically to tissue injury b. a special class of lymphocyte like cells that destroy virus infected host cells and cancer cells (1. a group of plasma proteins that bring about destruction of foreign cells by attacking their plasma membrane Question 35: . (2 points) The chemical mediators which guide phagocytic cells to the site of damage are called: a. selectins g 3— b. chemotaxins M @@ d. integins Question 36: (2 points) What role do mast cells play in the inflammatory response? a. They attack and engulf bacteria b. They bind to and activate T cells M (1. They form antibodies Question 37: (2 points) 3“) During the inflammatory response, which of the following is histamine not responsible for directly triggering? a. local arteriolar dilation b. diapedesis c. increased local capillary permeability Question 38: (2 points) What substance is secreted by viral infected cells in order to prevent spread of Virus infection to other cells? a. kallikrein b. endogenous pyrogen ®nterleukin 1 (k -. f Question 39: (2 points) . Any cell displaying processed antigen bound to a suitable MHC molecule is a. a pathogen. b. . a natural killer cell. _ d. an erythrocyte Question 40: (2 points) Any molecule that triggers the formation of lymphocytes and is their target is a. an antibody c. a MHC marker. d. an immunoglobulin. Question 41: (2 points) W . Once activated, virgin T cells give rise to a. effector helper T cells. b. effector cytotoxic T cells c. memory T cells M. Question 42: (2 points) What is the first thing that happens after a virgin B cell encounters an antigen? a. That B cell becomes a memory B cell. b. That B cell becomes an effector B cell. kc. w d. That B cell produces interleukins Question 43: (2 points) Active immunization involves injection of a involves injections of , while passive immunization a. T cells; B cells b. antibodies; vaccine .5 d. allergens; antibodies Question 44: (2 points) Which immunoglobulin serves as the antibody mediator for common allergic responses? a. IgM 0. IgG (1. lgD Question 45: , (2 points) Diseases which lead to the formation of "memory cells" can be potentially vaccinated against. b. False Question 46: (2 points) One known function of the reticular epithelial cells of the thymus is to am b. produce and secrete antibodies. 0. act as antigen-presenting cells. d. produce and secrete interleukin-1. e. differentiate into natural killer cells. Question 46: (2 points) One known function of the reticular epithelial cells of the thymus is to (@W b. produce and secrete antibodies. c. act as antigen-presenting cells. (1. produce and secrete interleukin-l. e. differentiate into natural killer cells. ’"fi Question 47: (2 points) B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in the a. liver. b. bloodstream. Elm d. red pulp of the spleen. e. Both C and D are correct. Question 48: (2 points) A chemical that is produced by virus-infected cells and released to provide nonspecific antiviral protection to neighboring cells is a. transferrin. b. interleukin-1. c. histamine. d. interleukin-2. Question 49: (2 points) After phagocytosis, which cellular organelle attaches to the phagosome and digests it? a. nucleus b. Golgi apparatus G)“ d. peroxisome e. endoplasmic reticulum Question 50: (2 points) A hapten is b. the heavy chain of an immunoglobulin molecule. 0. the antigen binding site of an immunoglobulin molecule. (1. the part of a lymphoid organ where antigens are processed. e. a self—antigen genetically encoded by the major histocompatibility complex. Question 51: (2 points) During specific immunity, competent T cells are activated by awhsnifécfls. N Wt. M 0. antibodies. (1. interleukin-1. e. “W ' / Question 52: (2 points) The process of coating an antigenic microbe with antibodies to make it more susceptible to phagocytosis is called a. chemotaxis. c. cloning. d. anergy. e. inflammation. Question 53: (2 points) The immunoglobulin important for providing passively acquired immunity to the fetus in utero is a. IgA. b. IgM. @- d. IgD. e. IgE. Question 54: V (2 points) Possibly fatal constriction of the bronchioles and a rapid drop in blood pressure are typical of b. phagocytosis when it occurs too rapidly. c. overproduction of memory B cells. (1. delayed hypersensitivity. e. immune complex hypersensitivity. Question 55: (2 points) Antibodies that circulate bound to basophils and mast cells belong to the immunoglobulin class a . Question 56: (2 points) The alveolar ventilation rate for someone whose tidal volume equal 450mL, whose dead space air equal lSOmL, and whose respiratory rate is 15 respirations per minute is a. 2250mL/min. b. c. 6750mL/min. d. 9000mL/min. 6. There is not enough information to calculate the alveolar ventilation rate. Question 57: ' (2 points) The residual volume is the amount of air a. remaining in the lungs after the lungs collapse. b. that can be inhaled above tidal volume. d. contained in air spaces above the alveoli. e. that can be exhaled above tidal volume. Question 58: (2 points) The tidal volume is the a. volume of air the lungs can hold when maximally inflated. c. percentage of alveolar air that is water vapor. (1. sum of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes. 6. volume of air left in the lungs after a forced expiration. Question 59: (2 points) If the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is decreasing, then a. the partial pressure of oxygen must be increasing. J new. c. d. there is an increase in the rate of the reaction converting carbonic acid into water M and carbon dioxide. e. there is an increase in the rate of the reaction converting carbonic acid into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion. Question 60: (2 points) Hemoglobin will tend to bind more oxygen at a given partial pressure of oxygen if L00 a. c. the pH is increased. N d. BPG concentration increases. e. the concentration of hydrogen ions increases. Question 61: i (2 points) High partial pressure of carbon dioxide favors the formation of a. BPG. @— c. chloride ions. d. oxyhemoglobin. e. carbon monoxide. Question 62: , (2 points) Carbonic acid is produced when a. oxygen combines with bicarbonate ion. b. carbon dioxide combines with bicarbonate ion. (1. oxygen and carbon dioxide combine. e. carbon dioxide attached to hemoglobin. if. Question 63: (2 points) The apneustic and pneumotaxic areas are located in the b. diaphragm. c. medulla oblongata. d. lungs. e. thoracic region of the spinal cord. Question 64: (2 points) Deficiency of hemoglobin leads to _Wa, while reduction in blood flow leads to ‘ ~——_..__ I -a. Question 6 : points) 7 i Tertiary bronchi branch to form _bronchioles . Question 66: (2 points) Podocytes are cells specialized for filtration that are found in the a. walls of the vasa recta. b. ascending limb of the loop of Henle. c. urinary bladder. e. collecting duct. Question 67: (2 points) If the diameter of the efferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the afferent arteriole, then a. blood pressure in the glomerulus stays low. b.” c. there must be an abnormal blockage in the peritubular capillaries. d. the endothelial-capsular membrane filters less blood than normal. e. capsular hydrostatic pressure increases to levels higher than glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure. Question 68: (2 points) In the myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation a. renin causes contraction of macula densa cells to increase GFR, b. M. c. norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles to decrease GF R. d. atrial natriuretic peptide causes relaxation of mesangial cells to increase GFR. e. angiotensin 11 causes dilation of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Question 69: (2 points) Which of the following substances is normally almost completely reabsorbed by the tubules of the nephron? Vfi a. creatinine 0. phosphate d. sodium 6. urea Question 70: l (2 points) The transport maximum is the a. highest the glomerular filtration rate can increase without inhibiting kidney function. b. greatest percentage of plasma entering the glomerulus that can become filtrate. d. steepest any concentration gradient can become. e. fastest rate at which fluid can flow through the renal tubules. Question 71: (2 points) Obligatory reabsorption of water occurs in the a. proximal convoluted tubule. b. distal convoluted tubule. c. ascending limb of the loop of Henle. d. descending limb of the loop of Henle. M Question 72: (2 points) Facultative reabsorption of water is regulated by a. angiotensin II. b. epinephrine. ‘_ . d. mesangial cells. e. calcitriol. Question 73: (2 points) The action of ADH on principal cells is to t.\' a. increase production of sodium ion pumps. b. increase insertion of aquaporin—2 vesicles into apical membranes. i/\ d. decrease the number of aquaporin-l vesicles in basolateral membranes. 6. WWTWW. MM Question 74: (2 points) The effect of aldosterone on the principal cells of the distal convoluted tubule is to ,/ l / a— b. increase the cells' permeability to water. c. increase retention of potassium ions. d. increase the cells' secretion of antidiuretic hormone. e. trigger the release ofrenin. Question 75: r (2 points) Clearance refers to b. the amount of solute passed into the urine per minute. 0. the amount of fluid passed across all the glomeruli per minute. d. the amount of solvent in the blood divided by the total volume. e. All answers are correct. ...
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F_466823_2010-01-07 - \2\) “x thp o Utlmii’éb/...

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