grapegrowing lecture 3 wine

grapegrowing lecture 3 wine - Grape Growing Wine...

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Unformatted text preview: Grape Growing Wine Appreciation FS 470 Fall 2008 Bruce Bordelon Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Grape Ampelography Family: Vitaceae Genus: Vitis Sub-genera: Euvitis (bunch grapes) More than 70 species worldwide Muscadinia (Muscadine grapes) One species Vitis rotundifolia Related genera Cissus (various ivys) Parthenocissus (Boston Ivy) Ampelopsis (pepper vine) Species of Euvitis 1. Europe-Asiatic (1 specie: Vitis vinifera) Most widely grown (>90%) of all grapes Juice grapes Rootstocks "Hybrids" Little use yet 2. North American (28 species) 3. East Asiatic (40 species) Distribution of Vitis species Vitis labrusca and others Vitis amurensis and others Vitis vinifera Origin and dispersal of Vitis vinifera Ancient routes Greek dispersal Roman Expansion North America Wild vinifera Vines Wild American Vines History of grape production in America "... so that they may have wine...by the produce of their own labor, from the very ground they tread." Original vineyard site in Vevay Wild American Vines Wild American Grapes Grape Flower Types History of grape production in America Catawba Introduced by John Adlum of Washington D.C. in 1823. Origin uncertain. Introduced into the Cincinnati region by Nicholas Longworth in 1825. Became widely grown in the region and later around the Lake Erie Islands. Recognized for excellent wine quality. "Very good in its way is the Verzenay Or the Sillery, soft and creamy, But Catawba wine has a taste more divine, More dulcet, delicious, and dreamy. There grows no vine, by the haunted Rhine, By the Danube or Guadalquiver, Nor island or cape, that bears such a grape As grows by the beautiful river." -Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Types of Cultivated Grapes 1. European: Vitis vinifera >90% of the world's wine, table, and raisin grapes Varieties selected over hundreds of years. For most, no record of actual crossing and selection 1. American (Vitis labrusca or labruscana) Varieties selected from the wild and developed through hybridization and selection, used primarily for juice and jam. (e.g. Concord & Niagara, for Welch's Grape Juice) 1. French-American hybrids and Rootstocks (for providing resistance to phylloxera) Derived from crosses between American species (other than labrusca) and V. vinifera. History of Rootstock and Hybrid Development Phylloxera Crisis in Europe (phyllo= leaf, xero=drying) Root louse (Daclyosphaera vitifoliae) native to North America 1862 Introduction into southern France Spread northward ~15 miles per year By 1890, many grapes had been killed Downy mildew fungus introduced (Plasmopora viticola) First fungicide (Bordeaux mixture) discovered (Alexis Millardet) American species were recognized to be resistant to phylloxera and mildew Nurseries began hybridizing to introduce new types (1880-1930) (Jaeger, Munson, others from US; Baco, Vidal, Kuhlman, Seibel, Villard, Seyve in France) Some types developed to be "direct producers" Other types developed to be "rootstocks" Phylloxera Resistant Rootstocks Selections of, or hybrids between: V. riparia V. rupestris Riparia Gloire de Montpelier Rupestris Saint George (du Lot) V. riparia x V. rupestris 3309 Couderc 101-14 Millardet et de Grasset V. Berlandieri x V. riparia SO4 5BB Kober 5C Teleki V. Berlanieri x V. rupestris 110 Richter 140 Ruggeri Others such as V. candicans, V. cinerea, etc. Grafting Combine two different genotypes together to form a single plant, but retain the genetic traits of each part. scion rootstock Rootstocks Allowed the traditional varieties to be grown Phylloxera resistance Lime tolerance Increased vigor Drought tolerance Nematode resistance Resistance to soilborne diseases Used worldwide (almost everywhere) to protect V. vinifera against phylloxera. Phylloxera Nodosities, tuberosities, and eventual root death Phylloxera Phylloxera Leaf Phylloxera Downy Mildew Powdery Mildew World Grape Production Worldwide 65 mil ton (most widely grown fruit crop) Tons of fruit 1. Italy 2. France 3. Spain 4. Argentina 5. USA 6. Germany Wine production France Italy Spain USA Argentina Germany World Production of Wine Source: OIV (mh: million hectolitre) United States Grape Production USA total 1,060,295 acres 6.8 mil tons (wine, table, raisin, juice) (juice and wine) (juice and wine) (wine) (juice and wine) (juice and wine) (wine) (wine) (juice and wine) 1. California (84%) 890,896 2. Washington 62,515 3. New York 36,716 4. Oregon 14,262 5. Michigan 13,420 6. Pennsylvania 12,565 7. Texas 4,114 8. Virginia 3,616 == 22. Indiana 559 Source: 2002 Census of Agriculture Factors affecting grape production The concept of "terroir"... wines from a particular region have a special character that cannot be duplicated. Terroir is the result of the combined effects of a region's soil, specific site characteristics (climate, slope, etc.), the viticulture (variety, rootstock, clone, training, etc.), the enology (fermentation, indigenous yeast and bacteria, length of maceration, level of refinement, etc.), the culture, knowledge and tradition regarding wine arts. Soils Grapes are adapted to a wide range of soil types Prefer deep, well-drained, low to moderately fertile soils Soils have an "indirect" effect on fruit and wine quality Climatic factors affecting grape production 50F 68F 30-50N, 30-40S latitude Climatic Factors that Affect Grape Production Minimum winter temperature In Continental Climate areas Plant Hardiness Zones in the Eastern US -20 to -30 F -10 to -20 F 0 to -10 F +10 to 0 F Climatic Factors that Affect Grape Production Length of the growing season Frost-free days Need at least 150 Site selection has a major impact (elevation, slope aspect, proximity to large bodies of water, etc) Winkler System for California Region I <2,500 to Region V >4,500 base 50F Wine style, variety adaptation Temperatures during the final month (ripening) Heat accumulation- Growing Degree Days Relative Humidity and Rainfall Amount and distribution of rain RH during the growing season Slopes help increase heat accumulation Steep slopes affect management options, increase costs of production Tuscany Terraced slopes Bordeaux Paso Robles, California Napa Valley, California Wind machines for frost protection Finger Lakes, NY Spare parts approach to growing vinifera in cold climates Growing Grapes in China Indiana Wine Industry 23 of 34 wineries grow grapes 6 grow vinifera 2004 Grape Acreage by Region North 126 Central 51 South Total 241 418 Indiana Oliver Winery Creekbend Vineyard Growing V. vinifera in Indiana Butler Vineyard Madison Winery Windy Knoll Winery Huber Orchard and Winery Grape Bud and Shoot Relationship Between Yield and Wine Quality "Low yielding vines produce the best quality wine" True in some cases, but not always. Fruit quality is dependent on "Balance" Leaf area to fruit weight ratio Canopy microclimate (sunlight exposure) Genetic potential of variety Potential of site (climate, soil, etc) Intended use of fruit Pruning and Training Grapes Many different systems Some based on traditional methods Some based on research results, need to mechanize, etc Goal is the same for all: Balance the amount of fruit produced to the vegetative vigor of the vines Display the fruit for proper sunlight exposure Make management of the vines easier Proper Fruit Exposure Average backyard vine Overhead Arbor Popular Training Systems Head Trained Vines Mid-wire Cane Pruned with Vertical Shoot Positioning Lyre with Vertical Shoot Positioning High Cordon Training High Cordon Training Shading in the canopy Viticulture and Enology Program at Purdue Cultivar Evaluation Effects of sunlight exposure and ripening season temperature on fruit quality Research wine making at Purdue Research wine making at Purdue Research wine making at Purdue Research wine making at Purdue Research wine making at Purdue Summary Grapes are the most widely grown fruit crop worldwide and are used for wine, table, juice, raisins There are over 70 species of grapes that evolved in the northern hemisphere Vitis vinifera is "King", but its production would not be possible without North American grape rootstocks Many hybrid varieties are grown in cold areas ...
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