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Unformatted text preview: ANIMALS & INVERTEBRATES
I. INTRODUCTION TO THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
0. KINGDOM ANIMALIA 1. Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that lack cell walls 2. Invertebrates no backbone (vertebral column) 3. Vertebrates animals w/ backbone 4. Homeostasis often maintained by internal feedback mechanism (feedback inhibition) II. CELL SPECIALIZATION & LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C = chemical composition C = cellular level T = tissue level O = organ level S = organ system level O = organismal level 6. EMBRYOLOGY the study of development after fertilization III. EARLY DEVELOPMENT 6. Zygote cells divide become blastula (hollow ball of cells) 7. Blastopore single opening that develops in blastula; the 1st opening 8. Tube formed becomes digestive tract 9. Protostome 1st opening (blastopore) = mouth 10. Deuterostome 1st opening = anus III. GERM LAYER 7. ENDODERM 8. MESODERM 9. ECTODERM 11. Cells become digestive tract & respiratory system 12. Cells become muscles, circulatory, reproductive, and excretory organ systems 13. Sense organs, nerves, skin 0. ASSYMETRY IV. BODY SYMMETRY 1. RADIAL SYMMETRY 0. No symmetry 2. BILATERAL SYMMETRY 1. Body parts repeat around central axis 2. Bicycle wheel 3. Only 1 imaginary plane can divide body into two equal halves 4. Almost always show cephalization grouping of sense organs (i.e. brain, nerves) at one end (have a head) 10.GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS V. SPONGES 14. PHYLUM PORIFERA ( pore-bearers) 15. Simplest animals 16. sessile 11.Asymmetrical 12.Central cavity 13.Choanocytes cells with flagella; line cavity; pump water through cavity 14.Osculum large opening 15.Skeleton made of spicules (hard) or spongin (soft) 16.No tissues (endo-, ecto-, or mesoderm) A. BODY PLAN B. FEEDING 3. FILTER FEEDERS 4. Intracellular digestion (inside cells) 5. Respiration 6. Circulation 7. Excretion C. RESPIRATION, CIRCULATION, EXCRETION 5. Water movement 6. Diffusion 7. Water movement 8. Diffusion 9. Nitrogenous waste 10. Ammonia 11. Carried away by water D. RESPONSE 8. No nervous system 9. Some protect themselves by releasing toxins E. REPRODUCTION 10. Sexual and asexual 11. Internal fertilization 12. Asexual reproduction
14. budding 12. Hermaphroditic; usually do not fertilize themselves 13. Aides in genetic diverstiy 17.PHYLUM CNIDARIA 18.Hydras, portuguese man-o-war, jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals 19.Carnivorous 20.Cnidocytes stinging cells on tentacles
17. Defense and capturing prey 18. Nematocyst poison filled stinging structure VI. CNIDARIANS 21.Radial symmetry 22.2 body forms A. BODY PLAN 19. Polyp tentacles up; sessile 20. Medusa tentacles down; "bell-shaped"; freeswimming 21. Diploblastic two tissue layers mesoderm & ectoderm 22. One opening - mouth 23.Digestion occurs in gastrovascular cavity (digestive chamber) 24.Extracellular and intracellular digestion 25.Sting, paralyze, capture prey w/ tentacles B. FEEDING 13. Respond w/ environment through sensory, or nerve cells 14.Nerve net organized system of nerve cells 15. Some have statocysts 16. Some have ocelli
15. Can sense stimuli and respond 16. Sensory cells that help determine direction of gravity 17. Eyespots with sensory cells that can detect light C. RESPONSE 26.Some have a hydrostatic skeleton D. MOVEMENT 27.Some move by jet propulsion 23. Use muscles and fluid in gastrovascular cavity to move 24. Polyps 25. Use muscles to squeeze fluid out of the cavity 26. Medusa 28.Sexual and asexual 29.Asexual by budding (gives rise to genetically identical individuals) 30.Sexual reproduction is usually by external fertilization 31.Rely on temperature, water depth, and light 32.Need light for algae that live w/ them symbiotically (mutualistic) 33.Coral bleaching has become a problem
27. Mutualistic algae get killed 28. Leaves corals with a bleached, whitish appearance 29. Kills the corals E. REPRODUCTION F. CORALS 34.PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES 35.Acoelemates VII. FLATWORMS 30. No coelom 31. Coelom fluid-filled body cavity that is lined by mesoderm (or tissue from mesoderm) 0. Acoelemates no coelom 1. Pseudocoelemates "false-coelom" cavity partially false-coelom" lined by mesoderm 2. Coelemate "true-coelom" cavity completely lined by true-coelom" mesoderm 36.BILATERAL SYMMETRY 37.Simplest animals w/ all 3 germ layers (cnidarians only had 2) A. BODY PLAN - FLATWORMS 38.Acoelemate 39.Do have a digestive cavity 17. Free-living (heterotrophic) or parasitic 18. Free-living B. FEEDING 19. Parasitic 18. One opening (pharynx) 19. Digestive system spread throughout body this aides in diffusion of nutrients to cells 20. No need for complex digestive system, many take in already digested food from host 21. Body systems overall more simple than free-living 40.No circulatory system
32. 33. C. RESPIRATION, CIRCULATION, EXCRETION
Rely on diffusion for gas exchange No blood, heart, vessels 41.Excretion through flame cells 34. Flame cells rid excess water & N-wastes 42.Free-living D. RESPONSE 43.Parasitic 35. More complex than parasitic 36. Head w/ ganglia (groups of nerve cells) 37. Nerve cords run length of body (look at planarian picture in book) 38. Some have eyespots, detect light 39. No need for very complex nervous system 44.Most free-living flatworms are hermaphroditic (sexual reproduction) 45.Reproduce asexually by fission (splits into two) 46.Parasitic flatworms usually have complex life cycle involving two or more hosts E. REPRODUCTION 20. Turbellarians F. GROUPS OF FLATWORMS
22. Free-living 23. Include planarian 24. Blood flukes, liver flukes common 25. Live in intestines 26. Scolex head 27. Proglottids sections of a tapeworm 28. Each proglottid has male and female organs that can produce eggs 21. Flukes (parasitic) 22. Tapeworms (parasitic) 23. PHYLUM NEMATODA 24. Free-living & parasitic 25. Pseudocoelem 26.Digestive tract w/ two openings (1st) A. FEEDING 27. Free-living & parasitic B. RESPIRATION, CIRCULATION, GAS EXCHANGE 28. Exchange gases & metabolic waste by diffusion through body walls VIII. ROUNDWORMS 1. Trichonosis-causing worms C. ROUNDWORMS & DISEASE
40. Burrow into tissues & organs, very painful 41. Eventually end up in muscle tissue 42. Get it by eating raw or undercooked pork 43. Live in blood and lymph tissue 44. Transferred mainly by mosquitoes 2. FILARIAL WORMS 45. Block passage in lymph vessels - elephantiasis 47.Causes malnutrition by living in small intestine and absorbing food eaten by host 48.Get by eating foods not washed properly 49.Affect 25% of world population 50.Develop in soil 51.Burrow through bare feet 52.Suck blood in the intestines 3. ASCARID WORMS 4. HOOKWORMS 53.PHYLUM ANNELIDA 54.Worms w/ segmented bodies and a true coelem (coelemate) 55.Body divided by septae 56.Most have bristles called setae 57.Crop part of intestine that stores food 58.Gizzard grinds food
ST XI. ANNELIDS A. FEEDING & DIGESTION B. CIRCULATION 59.1 to have circulatory system 60.Closed circulatory system blood travels completely in vessels 61.Aquatic gills 62.Terrestrial (land) diffusion through moist skin C. RESPIRATION 63. excrete N-waste through nephridia (filter fluid in coelem) D. EXCRETION 64.Well-developed 65.Small brain & nerve cords 66.More developed in free-living marine species
29. MUSCLES 30. HYDROSTATIC SKELETON 31. Marine worms have parapodia (paddle-like appendages) 32. Most sexual & some hermaphroditic 33. Rarely fertilize own eggs 34.Clitellum secretes mucus ring that collects sperm & eggs, slips off body, and protects embryos E. RESPONSE F. MOVEMENT G. REPRODUCTION 67.OLIGOCHATES "few-bristles" 68.LEECHES
46. Earthworm 47. Must have moist skin 48. Parasitic H. GROUPS OF ANNELIDS 69.POLYCHAETES "many-bristles" 49. Marine annelids with parapodia that have many bristles on the ends 70. Soft-bodied animals, usually w/ internal or external shell A. BODY PLAN 71. 4-parts
50. 51. 52. 53. shell 1) foot 2) mantle layer of tissue that covers body 3) shell calcium carbonate 4) visceral mass mass of internal organs secretes XI. MOLLUSKS 72.All types (herbivores, carnivores, filter feeders, parasites) 73.Radula toothed tongue-like stucture used for feeding C. RESPIRATION 74.Gills aquatic mollusks 75.Diffusion - terrestrial 76.Most have open circulatory system blood is not always in vessels 77.Cephalopods (squid, octopus) have closed circulatory system 78.N-waste in form of ammonia 79.Excreted by nephridia E. RESPONSE 80.Vary greatly B. FEEDING C. CIRCULATION 54. Blood empties into sinuses (spaces in body cavity) D. EXCRETION 55. Some have very simple nervous system (bivalves) 56. Some have very complex nervous system (cephalopods) 81.CEPHALOPODS MOVE BY JET PROPULSION
57. Shoot water through siphon E. MOVEMENT 35. GASTROPODS F. GROUPS OF MOLLUSKS
29. Shell-less or single shelled 30. Snails, slugs, & nudibranchs 31. 2-shelled mollusks 32. Clams, oysters, mussels 36.BIVALVES 37. CEPHALOPODS 33. Tentacled mollusks 34. Squid, octopus, nautilus 35. No shell, internal shell, or shelled ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2010 for the course BIOLOGY BILD3 taught by Professor Wills during the Spring '10 term at Campbell University .
- Spring '10