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Unformatted text preview: tic name ethanol is derived from the name of the alkane,ethane,with the final e replaced by the suffix ol.The suffix ol designates the presence of the OH group in a class of organic molecules called alcohols. To name the alkane chain as a group, replace the final e by yl,so that the ethane becomes ethyl;thus ethyl alcohol for CH3CH2OH. Functional groups are individual atoms or groupings of atoms that are attached to the carbon chains or rings of organic molecules and give the molecules their characteristic properties.Compounds with the same Functional group generally have similar properties.The OH group is called hydroxyl group. H H C OH
Methanol or Methyl alcohol H H H C H OH H C H C H H 2-Propanol or Isopropyl alcolol The prefix 2- indicates that the OH group is on the second C atom from the end Carboxyl group,COOH- confers acidic properties on a molecule. Compounds containing the carboxyl group are called carboxylic acids. The first carboxylic acids based on alkanes is methanoic acid,HCOOH.In the systematic name,the methan indicates one carbon atom and the oic acid indicates a carboxylic acid. An additional functional group is introduced in the examples that follow-a halogen atom substituting for one or more H atoms.The halogen carry the names,fluoro (F),chloro (Cl),bromo (Br),and iodo (I).
H H C H O C OH Ethanoic, or Acetic acid Example Recognizing types of organic compounds.what type of compound is each of the following? (a) CH3CH2CH2CH3 (b) CH3CHClCH2CH3 (c) CH3CH2COOH (d) CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH3 Solution (a) The carbon-to-carbon bonds are all single bonds in this hydrocarbon.This compound is an alkane. (b) In its molecules,these are only single bonds,and one H atom has been replaced by a Cl atom.This compound is a chloroalkane. (c) The presence of the carboxyl group,-COOH,in its molecules means that this compound is a carboxylic acid. (d) The presence of the hydroxyl group,-OH,in its molecules means that this compound is an alcohol. Example Naming organic compounds.Name these compounds. (a) CH3CHFCH2CH3 (c) CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH3 Solution (a) The structure is that of a fluoroalkane molecule with the F atom on the second carbon atom of a four-carbon chain.The compound is called 2-fluorobutane. (b) The carbon chain in this structure is three carbon atoms long with the end C atom in a carboxyl group.The compound is propanoic acid. (c) This structure is that of an alcohol with the hydroxyl group on the third carbon atomof a five-carbon chain.The compound is called 3-pentanol. (b) CH3CH2COOH Example Writing structural formulas from the names of organic compounds. Write the condensed structural formula for each of the following organic compounds: (a) Butanoic acid Solution
(a) The oic ending indicates that the end carbon atom of the four-carbon chain is part of a carboxylic acid group.The condensed structural formula is CH3(CH2)2COOH. (b) The prefix chloro indicates the substitution of a chlotine atom for a H atom,and the 1-designates that it is on the first C atom of the carbon chain.The carbon chain is five C atoms long,as signified by the word stem pent. The condensed structural formula is CH3(CH2)4CH2Cl (c) The suffix ol indicates the presence of a hydroxyl group in place of a H atom,and the 1- designates that it is on the first C atom of the carbon chain.The word stem hex signifies that the carbon chain is six C atoms long.The condensed structural formula is CH3(CH2)4CH2OH. (b) 1-chloropentane (c) 1-hexanol...
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2010 for the course FIN 401 taught by Professor Chemistry during the Spring '10 term at Uni Potsdam.
- Spring '10