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Unformatted text preview: compound Cu2(OH)2CO3 malachite CH2Cu2O5 basic cupric carbonate CuCO3Cu(OH)2 copper(II) carbonate dihydroxide Some complex substances we are certain to encounter are know as hydrates.In a hydrate, each formula unit of the compound has associated with it a certain number of water molecules.The water molecules are incorporated in the solid structure of the compound. CoCl26H2O called cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate Its formula mass is that of CoCl2 plus that associated with six H2O: 129.8 u +( 618.02) g H2O = 237.9 u 3-7 Names and Formulas of Organic Compounds The naming of organic compounds uses a different set of rules than inorganic compounds.There are millions of organic compounds,many comprised of highly complex molecules. Hydrocarbons Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons containing only single bonds are called alkanes. H H C H
Methane H H C H H C C C C C H H H Benzene Ethene (ethylene) Stem (or Prefix) Meth Word stem(or prefix) indicating ten number of carbon atoms in simple organic molecules Eth Prop But Pent Hex Hept Oct Non Number of C Atoms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The names of the alkanes are composed of two parts:a word stem indicating the number of carbon atoms and the ending(suffix) ane indicating that the molecule is an alkane.Thus C3H8 is propane and C7H16 is heptane. Hydrocarbon molecules with one or more double bonds between carbon atoms are called alkenes.The simplest of the alkenes is ethene;its name consists of the stem eth and the ending ene.Benzene,C6H6,is a molecule with six carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal ring.Molecules with structures related to benzene make up a large proportion of known organic compounds. Butane and methylpropane have the same molecular formula,C4H10,but different structural formulas. Butane and methylpropane are isomers. Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms in space.As organic molecules become more complex,the possibilities for isomerism increase very rapidly. Recognizing isomers. Are the following pairs of molecules isomers or not? (a) CH3CH(CH3)(CH2)3CH3 and (CH2)3CH3 (b)CH3 CH CH2 CH3 CH2 CH3 and CH3 CH3CH2CH(CH3) CH CH2 CH3 CH2 CH3 Solution Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. We first check to see if the molecular formulas are the same.If the formulas are not the same,they signify different compounds.If the formulas are the same,they may signify Isomers,but only if the structures are different. (a)The molecular formula of the first compound is C7H16,and the second compound has the formula C8H18. The molecules are not isomers. (b)These molecular have the same formula ,C6H14but they different in structure. They are isomers. Functional Groups Carbon chains provide the framework upon which other atoms or groups of atoms can replace one or more of the hydrogen atoms.The molecule is ethanol,CH3CH2OH,in which one of the H atoms of ethane is replaced by an OH group.The systema...
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- Spring '10