Chemistry CH 8

Chemistry CH 8 - Chapter 8 The Atmospheric Gases and...

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Chapter 8 The Atmospheric Gases and Hydrogen
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Contents 8-1 The Atmosphere 8-2 Nitrogen—Smog 8-3 Oxygen— Ozone 8-4 Oxides of Carbon—Global Warming 8-5 Hydrogen—A Hydrogen Economy
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8-1 The Atmosphere Composition of Dry Air Near Sea Level 28.013 31.998 39.948 44.0099 20.183 4.003 16.043 83.80 2.0159 44.0128 131.30 0.78084 0.20948 0.00934 0.000355 0.00001818 0.00000524 0.000002 0.00000114 0.0000005 0.0000005 0.000000087 Nitrogen  Oxygen  Argon Carbon dioxide Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen Nitrous oxide Xenon   Molecular weight Content(mole  fraction) Component  a a Ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, and carbon monoxide are present as trace gases in variable amounts.
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Structure of the Atmosphere
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(a) Temperature variations in the atmosphere at altitudes below 110 km. (b) Variations in atmospheric pressure with altitude. At 80 km the pressure is approximately 0.01 torr Temperature and pressure
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The aurora borealis, or northern lights. The aurora borealis, or northern lights, observed at high northern latitudes are light emissions from atoms, ions, and molecules in the ionosphere.
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Water Vapor in the Atmosphere Air contains water vapor, H 2 O(g), in quantities ranging from traces to as much as 4% by volume. A common method of describing the water vapor content of air through its relative humidity . Relative Humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the vapor pressure of water at the same temperature, expressed on a percent basis. Thus, if the partial pressure of water vapor in air at 25 ºC is 12.2 mm Hg, the relative humidity of air is 51.3% Relative humidity = partial pressure of water vapor vapor pressure of water × 100% = 12.2 mmHg 23.8 mmHg × 100% = 51.3%
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The Atmosphere as a Source of Chemicals Example Using the Atmosphere as a Source of Chemicals. What volume of air must be processed to produce 5.00 L of N 2 (g)? Solution From the table of Composition of Dry Air we find that air contains 78.084% N 2 by volume. To find the volume of air needed, we use this value as a conversion factor. volume of air = 5.00 L N 2 × 100.000 L air 78.084 L N 2 = 6.40 L
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The fractional distillation of liquid air—a simplified representation Nitrogen gas 77.4 K Argon gas 87.5 k Liquid oxygen 90.2 k Normal boiling points
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8-2 Nitrogen Smog—An Environmental Issue Involving Oxides of Nitrogen Smog —It referred to a condition, common in London, in which a combination of smoke and fog obscured visibility and produced health hazards (including death). These conditions are often associated with heavy industry, and this type of smog is now called industrial smog. Many substances have been identified in smoggy air, including NO, NO 2 , ozone, and a variety of organic compounds(PAN) derived from gasoline hydrocarbons.
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Chemists who have been studying photochemical smog formation over the past several decades have determined that the precursors listed earlier are converted to the observable smog components through the action of sunlight. we will give only a very brief, simplified scheme showing how
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Chemistry CH 8 - Chapter 8 The Atmospheric Gases and...

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