Chemistry CH 9

Chemistry CH 9 - Chapter 9 Electrons in Atoms In neon...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 Electrons in Atoms In neon signs, the glass tubes contain various gases that can be excited by electricity. Light is produced when the electrons in an electrically excited gas atom fall into a lower energy state. Different gases produce lights of different colors. Contents 9-1 Electromagnetic Radiation 9-2 Atomic Spectra 9-3 Quantum Theory 9-4 The Bohr Atom 9-5 Two Ideas Leading to a New Quantum Mechanics 9-6 Wave Mechanics 9-7 Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals 9-8 Interpreting and Representing the Orbitals of the Hydrogen Atom 9-9 Electron Spin: A Fourth Quantum Number 9-10 Multielectron Atoms 9-11 Electron Configurations 9-12 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 9-1 Electromagnetic Radiation Our main topic in this chapter is the electronic structures of atoms. We can learn about electrons in atoms by studying the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and matter. We will begin with background information about electromagnetic radiation and atomic structure in the following sections. A wave is a disturbance that transmits energy through a medium. Although water waves may be more familiar, let us use a simpler example to illustrate some important ideas and terminology about wavesa traveling wave in a rope. The simplest wave motiontraveling wave in a rope As a result of the up-and-down hand motion (top to bottom), waves pass along the long rope from left to right. This one-dimensional moving wave is called a traveling wave. The wavelength of the wave, the distance between two successive crestsis identified. In relation to the center line (the broken line in Figure), the wave consists of crests , or high points, where the rope is at its greatest distance above the center line, and troughs , or low points, where the rope is at its greatest distance below the center line. The maximum height of the wave above the center line or the maximum depth below is called the amplitude . The distance between the tops of two successive crests (or the bottoms of two troughs) is called, the wavelength , designated by the Greek letter lambda, . Wavelength is one important characteristic of a wave. Another feature, frequency , designated by the Greek letter , is the number of crests or troughs that pass through a given point per unit of time. Frequency has the unit, time I 1 , usually s I 1 (per second), meaning the number of events or cycles per second. Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy transmission in which electric and magnetic fields are propagated as waves through empty space (a vacuum) or through a medium such as glass. According to a theory proposed by James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) in 1865, electromagnetic radiation a propagation of electric and magnetic fieldsis produced by an accelerating electrically charged particle (a charge particle whose velocity changes). Radio waves , for example, are a form of electromagnetic radiation produced by causing oscillations (fluctuations) of the electric current in a specially designed electrical circuit. Elec...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 05/07/2010 for the course CHEM 401 taught by Professor Chemistry during the Spring '10 term at Uni Potsdam.

Page1 / 152

Chemistry CH 9 - Chapter 9 Electrons in Atoms In neon...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 7. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online