Chemistry CH 10

Chemistry CH 10 - 10 The Periodic Table and Some Atomic...

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Unformatted text preview: 10 The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties 10-1 Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table 10-2 Metals and Nonmetals and Their Ions 10-3 The Sizes of the Atoms and Ions 10-4 Ionization Energy 10-5 Electron Affinity 10-6 Magnetic Properties 10-7 Periodic Properties of the elements In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer Independently proposed the periodic law : When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically . We have already described the periodic table as a tabular arrangement of the elements that groups similar elements together. Mendeleevs work attracted more attention than Meyers for two reasons: He left blank spaces in his table for undiscovered elements, and he corrected some atomic masses. 10-1 Classifying the Elements, The Periodic Law and The Periodic Table The organization schemes (see Table10. 1) put forth by Mendeleev and Meyer were the forerunners of the modern periodic table. Table10. 1 The Periodic Table of Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer Table10. 2 Comparison of the Properties of Eka-silicon Predicted by Mendeleev with the Observed Properties of Germanium The Periodic Table of Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer Discovery of New Element, such as gallium, 1875 A New Group (the Noble gases) for the Periodic Table the Modern Periodic Table Table 10.3 the Modern Periodic Table In 1913 Henry Moseley improved on the periodic table by developing the concept of atomic numbers. Arranging the elements in order of increasing atomic number eliminated some of the inconsistencies in the periodic table, which has been based on atomic weights. For example, in a table ordered according to atomic mass, potassium would appear below neon in group 8A. Clearly the properties of potassium, which is a solid at room temperature and highly reactive, would not logically place it in that group. When the elements are instead arranged in order of increasing atomic number, argon and potassium appear in their correct places. The modern periodic table arranges elements in order of increasing atomic number. atomic number Description of the Modern Periodic Table The vertical groups bring together elements with similar properties. The horizontal periods of the table are arranged in order of increasing atomic number from left to right. The groups are numbered at the top. and the periods at the extreme left in the periodic table on the inside front cover. The first two groups--the s block- and the last six groups--the p block- together constitute the main-group elements. The d-block elements are known as the transition elements. The f-block elements, sometimes called the innertransition elements, would extend tile table to a widlh of 32 members if incorporated in the main body of the table....
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2010 for the course CHEM 401 taught by Professor Chemistry during the Spring '10 term at Uni Potsdam.

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Chemistry CH 10 - 10 The Periodic Table and Some Atomic...

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