Week 06 Objective Assignment
Chapter 6: Bone and Bone Tissue
Describe the gross anatomy of a typical long bone and flat bone. Indicate the locations and
functions of red and yellow marrow, periosteum, and endosteum.
Long Bone - Long bones are longer than they are wide, have two epiphyses and a
All of the bones of the limbs, except the patella, ankle, and wrist, are
considered long bones.
A long bone has a shaft, the diaphysis, and two ends, the
epiphyses. The periosteum is the outer surface of bone and covers a long bone in all
areas, except for the
articular surfaces, which are covered by articular, or hyaline,
cartilage. Deep in the periosteum is a layer of compact bone, a thicker layer in the
diaphysis than the epiphysis. The endosteum is a thin layer of connective tissue, which
lines the surface of the bony tissue that forms the medullary cavity of long bones.
contains yellow bone marrow. In the epiphyses deep to the layer of compact
bone is spongy bone.
Between the trabecula of the spongy bone is red bone marrow.
Flat Bone - Flat bones are thin, flattened, and a bit curved. The sternum, scapulae, ribs,
and most of the bones of the skull are flat bones. Ossification, or osteogenesis, is the
process of bone formation.
Two mechanisms form bone:
Intramembranous ossification results in the formation of the cranial bones