MSU BIO215 Lecture - Week 07 Objective Assignment

MSU BIO215 Lecture - Week 07 Objective Assignment - BIOL215...

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BIOL215 Lecture Week 07 Objective Assignment Chapter 7: The Skeleton 1. Name the major parts of the axial and appendicular skeletons and describe their relative functions. a. Axial Skeleton forms the longitudinal axis of the body, supports the head, neck, and trunk, and protects the brain, spinal cord, and the organs of the thorax. i. Skull formed by cranial and facial bones, encloses and protects the brain, provide attachment sites for muscles of the head and neck. ii. Vertebral column formed by 26 irregular bones in a flexible, curved structure that provides axial support for the trunk, surrounds and protects the spinal cord, and provides attachment points for the ribs and muscles of back and neck. iii. Thoracic cage the bony underpinning of the chest comprised of the sternum, ribs, and costal cartilage; forms a protective cage around the vital organs of the thoracic cavity (heart, lungs, and great blood vessels), provides support for the pectoral girdle and upper limbs, provides attachment points for multiple muscles of the neck, back, chest, and shoulders. b. Appendicular Skeleton formed by the limbs and their girdles; allow interaction and manipulation of environment. i. Pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and scapula; attaches the upper limbs to the axial skeleton and provides attachment points for multiple muscles that move the upper limbs. ii. Upper limbs consists of 30 separate bones (left and right respectively) and is comprised of the arm, forearm, and hand. iii. Pelvic girdle attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton, transmits the full weight of the upper body to the lower limbs, and supports the visceral organs of the pelvis; secured to the axial skeleton by strongest ligaments of the body; comprised of the bony pelvis, ilium, ischium, and pubis bones. iv. Lower limbs carry entire weight of the erect body and contain three segments the thigh, the leg, and the foot. 2. Name, describe, and identify the skull bones. Identify their important markings. a. Cranium i. Frontal bone 1. Description - resembles a cockleshell in form, and consists of two portions: a vertical portion, the squama frontalis, corresponding with the region of the forehead and an orbital or horizontal portion, the pars orbitalis, which enters into the formation of the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities. 2. Important markings - Frontal or coronal suture; supraorbital foramina ii. Parietal bones 1. Description the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles. 2. Important markings - Sagittal suture
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BIOL215 Lecture Week 07 Objective Assignment iii. Occipital bone 1. Description - saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoid in shape and curved on itself. It is pierced by a large oval aperture, the foramen magnum, through which the cranial cavity communicates with the vertebral canal. 2.
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MSU BIO215 Lecture - Week 07 Objective Assignment - BIOL215...

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