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MSU BIO216 Lecture - Week 9-10 Objective Assignment

MSU BIO216 Lecture - Week 9-10 Objective Assignment -...

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BIOL216 Lecture Week 9-10 Objective Assignment Chapter 22: The Respiratory System Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System 1. Identify the organs forming the respiratory passageway(s) in descending order until the alveoli are reached. Nose Air enters the respiratory tract through the nostrils. The surface of the nasal cavities is moist from mucus and warm from blood flowing just under it, so as air passes through this area it is humidified and warmed. Nerve endings responsible for smell are located in the nasal mucosa. Pharynx Air and food pass through the pharynx or throat on their way to the lungs and stomach, respectively. Two small masses of lymphatic tissue called tonsils are embedded in the mucous membrane of the pharynx. Larynx This structure is responsible for creating sound. It is covered with a piece of cartilage called the epiglottis, which closes the larynx during swallowing and prevents food from entering the trachea. Trachea This tube, often called the windpipe, furnishes part of the open passageway through which air can reach the lungs from the outside. Bronchi These subdivisions of the trachea lead to the lungs. In each lung they branch into smaller, or secondary, bronchi, which branch into bronchioles. Bronchioles subdivide into microscopic tubes called alveolar ducts. Each alveolar duct ends in several grapelike clusters called alveolar sacs. The wall of each alveolar sac is made up of extremely thin-walled structures called alveoli. Alveoli are lined with blood capillaries, so on their surface an exchange of gases between air and blood can take place. Lungs These are paired organs that provide an area where air and blood can come close enough to each other for oxygen to move out of the air into blood while carbon dioxide moves out of the blood into air. 2. Distinguish between conducting and respiratory zone structures. Functionally, the respiratory system structures can be classified into conducting and respiratory zones. The conducting zone; whereby air can move in a continuous passageway includes: Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles The respiratory zone; is found deep inside the lungs where inhaled oxygen can be exchanged for carbon dioxide and includes: Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveoli Anatomically , the respiratory system structures are divided into the upper respiratory and lower respiratory tracts.
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