BIOSTUDYGUIDE-1

BIOSTUDYGUIDE-1 - BIOTECHNOLOGY using living organisms and...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOTECHNOLOGY using living organisms and their products for the betterment of life Ancient (cross-breeding, domesticate animals; took 100s of years), Classical (ferment wine, yeast/bacteria), Modern (genetic engineering, faster cross-breeding) Uses Red medical field o Medicine/drug, body, surgery/transplant, blood Blue marine o aquatic animal organism/plant/algae o newer Green plants o food, algae White industry o Fermentation, large amount production drug/enzymes, clothes softened for wear o Subtisin added to detergent to dissolve stains Model Systems Bacteria o Most common (ecoli) Simple, prokaryotic Multiples fast Has plasmid Yeast/fungi o Eukaryotic o Multiply fast virus Mice Zebra fish o Vertibrates transparent, can see heart/muscle, cancer/disease development o Small, modern system Chimps o HIV, STD, infectious diseases Dogs o Get prostate cancer easily, reflexes study, diabetes Choosing a Model System Not ethical to do on people Cheap to maintain/create (ex. Yeast/bacteria) Short generation time/fast (bacteria 20 mins) o Have started to use longer systems (vertebrates) b/c more similar to human processes Plasmid Resistance gene present Compatibility to pick up DNA fast Small but complex Independent of genome, add genome of interest Steps o DNA cut using restriction enzymes o DNA glued with ligase enzyme o Put back in bacteria cell (transformation) o Creates a recombinant plasmid in each cell o Replicates independently of chromosome Produces ex insulin (1 st substance cloned/created) now in bacteria cell Copies fast, can harvest Pharming : production of pharmaceuticals in animals engineered to contain a foreign, drug producing gene o ex. Goats contain human gene for a clot-dissolving protein produced in their milk Cloning Uses: o Answer biological questions o Herd improvement o Pharmaceutical production o Save endangered species o Satisfy our desires ex. pet Although clones, not exactly the same = chromosomes etc not only determining factor Use a virus to insert plasmid (DNA) Animal (Dolly first) o 3 animals involved o 1 st animal take egg cell and remove neucleus o 2 nd animal, take somatic cells (not a reproductive cell) nucleus, put into egg cell of 1 st animal o Add newly created egg cell into 3 rd animal(surrogate mom) Shows that all cells of an individual share a common genetic blueprint o Inefficient/expensive Plant o Each cell made to use a new plant o Agrobacterium Tumefaciens bacteria used to instert plasmid (DNA) in plant cell Plant cell wall very thick, difficult to change plant systems Creates Crown Gap/Gall a tumor/cancer in plants Stem Cell Two Types o Embryonic Can be made into all different cells nerves etc Isolate at blastocyst stage before start getting layers and differentiating into nerves, blood, etc o Adult Already differentiated/specialized cell type Can be only form same tissue Terminator Gene...
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BIOSTUDYGUIDE-1 - BIOTECHNOLOGY using living organisms and...

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