Page 164-193 - Page 164-193 Notes War and Peace 1776-1783...

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Page 164-193 Notes War and Peace, 1776-1783 War mainly on North, but decided on South with victory at York Town, Virginia 1781. Shifting Fortunes in The North, 1776-1778 Americans force British to move out of Boston, William Howe and Richard Howe , lays siege to New York and succeed. By end of year, British force troops to flee from NY , NJ, and Delaware River . British near Philadelphia. Christmas 1776, Washington takes back NJ,. Victories were important in morale. Got Loyalists support. Some even enlisted in American army. Marquis de Lafayette, joins Washington’s staff , Louis wants proof that Americans could win a major battle. Americans win battle of Saratoga, due to fact that John Burgoyne and other British army stopped before they could link up. The victory of Saratoga, convinced France to join(Feb, 1778). Spain (1779) joined later, ally’s of France, not U.S.’s, Dutch Republic joined in last days of 1780. Only reason Whigs won was because of numbers at Saratoga. British take Pennsylvania in Sep 11, 1777. German soldier, Friedrich von Steuben, arrived at Valley Forge, boost Continental Army. General Henry Clinton, joins British. Battle of Monmouth ends contest for North. Clinton occupies NY(Royal Navy safe from attack). Washington keeps army nearby to watch Clinton. Whig militia, hunts down last Tories. The War in the West, 1776-1782 Smaller scale warfare, continued deeply rooted struggle. War started in West in 1776 when Cherokees began attacking NC and other Southern colonies. SC and NC, retaliate, force Indians to sign treaties. Fighting more intense in Northwest, Colonel George Rogers Clark, takes over Vincennes , 1779. John Bowman, leads another campaign to destroy Shawnee villages. Pro-British Iroquois lead by Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, destroys NY, PA frontiers in 1778. American General John Sullivan leads troops and destroy Iroquois. 1780, Brant’s army destroys Tuscaroras and Oneidas. Fighting continues in West until 1782. Western campaigns did not determine outcome of war. Shapes future impact of U.S. on Indians. American Victory in the South, 1778-1781 1778, war focus shifts to the South. British attacked on all fronts. Spanish and French navy equal Britain’s navy, punctures Royal Navy’s blockade. British plan to secure South and get Loyalists support, but loyalism diminished due since war began. Horatio Gates loses biggest battle at Camden, worst defeat. Washington relieves Gates of command and sending Nathanael Greene. Nathanael Greene loses 3 battles, but stretches British supply line and drains British’s strength.
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Cornwallis establishes base at Yorktown, bad decision (August 30, 1781), French troops and American troops overwhelm British, forced surrender of British. Peace at Last, 1781-1783
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Page 164-193 - Page 164-193 Notes War and Peace 1776-1783...

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