Study sheet midterm hist 101

Study sheet midterm hist 101 - Study sheet midterm hist 101...

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Study sheet midterm hist 101 1. formation of Athenian empire: A. Homer and history - homer did not live until 725 bc or earlier but and oral tradition of poetry going back to Mycenaean times means the iliad and the odyssey are based on a kernel of historical truth -expresses the heroic and aristocratic values of elite men and women that would influence greek antiquity for centuries A. The Persian wars, 499-479 bc 1. Greek city states under Persian rule since 540s - led by Miletus, greek city states rose in revolt ag Persia in 499bc. Coalition broke down after Athens withdrew its troops and was crushed by Persia. - Darius I sent naval expedition to Athens. Athens retaliated and defeated Persia in a sound victory. - Rematch occurred when Xerxes sent force of a thousand ships to Athens. Athens joined by Sparta and 29 other Peloponnesian poleis in Hellenic league of defense -persia invaded Greece in 480 bc and passed through central Greece crushing the Spartans. Greeks then defeated Persians crushing the remaining forces and forcing the others to retreat. The Greeks liberated the Ionians. Persia lost its eastern Aegean Empire. Greeks regarded the Persians thereafter as barbarians and Greeks became more aware of their common culture. B. After the defeat of Persian invaders in 479, Athenians organized mutual defense league called the Delian League among the smaller greek states, with it as the strongest member. Eventually Athens converted it to an empire under Athenian control arousing suspicion among other greek states. -athenians saw no conflict bet. Imperialism and democracy- strong states should dominate weaker ones C. Struggles to Dominate Greece 1. constant struggle in diplomacy and war among city states -athens expanded it’s power as hegemon of new security organization: Delian League aimed at protecting greek lands and destroying the Persians. Alliances grew to 250 in 431 bc. - Major allied states rebelled but Athens crushed each rebellion. Turned to Sparta, greece’s greatest land power vs. Athens Greece’s greatest sea power - Melian dialogue : island of melos invaded, unprovoked act of aggression. Athens destroyed the melians and colonized the territory 3. The Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 bc) -ideological struggle - democratic Athens and oligarchic Sparta sought to promote respective ideologies -balance of power shifted after failed Athenian attempt to conquer sicily leading to thousands of causalities. Most of the Athenian Empire thereinafter revolted. -persia aligned itself with Sparta in a deal to restore ionia -Sparta won the war but made poor leaders as diplomats and policy makers. Had falling out with Athenian’s former empire
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-sparta suffered decline in number of citizens because they could no longer afford to live as elite soldiers - 371 bc: Boeotian army crushed the Spartans and restored Messenia to independence -result was: none of the greek city states had been able to maintain hegemony -the absence of cooperative value left Greece open to invasion
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2010 for the course HIST 101A/B taught by Professor Effros during the Fall '08 term at Binghamton.

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Study sheet midterm hist 101 - Study sheet midterm hist 101...

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