#7 sports nutrition ns160 - NST 160 Sports Nutrition and...

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  NST 160 Sports Nutrition and Endocrinology Marc K. Hellerstein, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Human Nutrition (D.H. Calloway Chair), University of California Berkeley; Professor of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Dept. of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco
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  I) Can nutrients or other exogenous factors alter sports performance? - Mechanisms; types of exercise to consider II) Classes of nutrients and relation to performance A) Carbohydrates (“energy”) B) Protein (“muscle building”) C) Biochemical supplements (creatine, etc.) III) Hormones and performance-enhancing drugs A) Strength/resistance exercise B) Aerobic/endurance exercise IV) Medical applications of these principles V) Summary and conclusions Outline – Sports Nutrition and Endocrinology
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  Aerobic activities (endurance exercise) - Duration longer than seconds; intensity less than VO 2 max (max capacity for aerobic work) -Training induces cardiovascular adaptations; muscle blood flow; hematologic changes; oxygen uptake and exchange; mitochondrial function and mass; capacity for lactate removal and recovery from anaerobiosis;and other alterations - Consequence is improved “fitness” (measurable) - Endurance/aerobic athletes: typically “lean” (low fat mass; variable but typically not hypertrophied muscle mass) - Aerobic fitness highly dependant on effort (motivation); difficult to assess clinically - Numerous associated metabolic alterations: improved insulin- mediated glucose utilization; reduced blood TG, higher HDLc; altered clotting factors; lower resting pulse; reduced body fat; reduced weight; higher ratio lean body: fat mass; reduced visceral fat mass Basic concepts about exercise and sports: Two types of exercise to consider
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  Strength/power activities (resistance exercise) - Duration seconds (e.g., sprints; lifting; jumping) = Bursts - Involves increase in muscle mass, increase in neuromeuscular function- e.g., muscle fiber recruitment (the latter can occur in response to resistance exercise before any changes in muscle mass are observed) - Power athletes: large muscle mass; fat mass variable - Power activities highly dependent on effort (motivation); difficult to assess clinically - Actually do not have to breathe during pure power activity (purely “anaerobic” generation of ATP). Example: 100 meter dash. - Capacity to maintain muscle contractions without oxygen can be influenced (e.g., by ATP “reserves” in the muscle, like creatine-phosphate) Basic concepts about exercise and sports: Two types of exercise to consider
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  Some sports involve only one, some both types of exercise: American football: almost all power/resistance; typically players are not fit (e.g., effect of no huddle offense), although some positions different; poor recovery from
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This document was uploaded on 05/07/2010.

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#7 sports nutrition ns160 - NST 160 Sports Nutrition and...

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