#10 NS_160-Diet and Cancer-MH0509

#10 NS_160-Diet and Cancer-MH0509 - NST 160 Diet and Cancer...

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NST 160 Diet and Cancer Marc K. Hellerstein, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Human Nutrition (D.H. Calloway Chair), University of California Berkeley; Professor of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Dept. of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco
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Introduction Foods provide a vast array of chemicals which may be either pro-carcinogens or anti- carcinogens. Which foods may increase the risk of cancer and how? Which foods may prevent/slow the formation of cancer and how? Eating fruits and vegetable reduces cancer risk by about 50%! How can this work?
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Carcinogenesis (process) vs cancer (end-result) Multi-hit model of carcinogenesis: cancers exhibit many mutations in genes related to control of proliferation and cell-cycle But how can one cell accumulate many mutations (mutations are rare)? Answer: by growth advantage and clonal expansion of cells with initial mutations This process involves repeated rounds of mutation/ fixation/expansion Where does proliferation fit into this process? Many steps! (shortened G1 time for DNA mismatch repair; fixation of DNA damage as permanent mutations; chromosomal/replication errors with division) Stem cell notion in epithelial tissues: retained cells accumulate mutations; sloughed cells not relevant Carcinogenesis therefore takes years, or decades. By the time there is an established cancer, it is well advanced in terms of its pathogenic sequence
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Generally accepted that there are two driving forces Mutagenesis: gene mutations (“initiation”) Mitogenesis: cell division (“promotion”, or progression and likelihood of initiation) Dietary chemoprevention: pathogenic goal therefore to modify dietary intake to slow cell division and/or prevent genetic damage Carcinogenesis (process)
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Carginogenic Mechanisms Chemicals in food may: Generate free radicals and cause genetic damage Increase cell division by providing a growth stimulus National Toxicology Program (NTP), part of the National Institutes of Health, published in its latest update of “Report on Carcinogens”, materials known to cause
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This document was uploaded on 05/07/2010.

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#10 NS_160-Diet and Cancer-MH0509 - NST 160 Diet and Cancer...

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