alcohol 2010 - Spotlight on Alcohol Alcoholic fermentation...

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Unformatted text preview: Spotlight on Alcohol Alcoholic fermentation Alcoholic fermentation: the most ancient business of biotechnology. Yeast ferment grain sugars to form beer, and grape juice to form wine. Sugars are broken down and used for energy, forming ethanol as the waste product, which is excreted from the cell. Distillation is a means of increasing alcohol content of a beverage. Alcohol dehydrogenase Pyruvate decarboxylase Alcoholic fermentation in yeast Lactate dehydrogenase 2 ADP 2ATP Anaerobic glucose metabolism in muscle The character of alcohol Ethanol The alcohol in beer, wine, spirits Methanol Wood alcohol poisonous Is alcohol a nutrient? Provides energy (7 kcal/gram) No other nutritive value H Methanol Ethanol Alcohol Alcohol absorption No digestion required Absorbed from mouth, esophagus, stomach and small intestine Absorption slowed by food Alcohol Insel, Turner and Ross, Nutrition , 2nd edition What constitutes a drink? What is a safe level of drinking? For most adults, moderate alcohol use--up to two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women and older people-- causes few if any problems. Certain people should not drink at all Women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant. People who plan to drive or engage in other activities that require alertness and skill (such as using high-speed machinery). People taking certain over-the-counter or prescription medications. People with medical conditions that can be worsened by drinking. Recovering alcoholics. People younger than age 21. Alcohol affects women differently than men Women become more impaired than men after drinking the same amount of alcohol, even when differences in body weight are taken into account. This is because women's bodies have less water than men's bodies. Because alcohol mixes with body water, a given amount of alcohol becomes more highly concentrated in a woman's body than in a man's. Thus, the recommended drinking limit for women is lower than for men. Alcohol Metabolism: Gender Differences Drinking during pregnancy is dangerous . Alcohol can have a number of harmful effects on a fetus. The baby can be born mentally retarded or with learning and behavioral problems that last a lifetime. It is not known exactly how much alcohol is required to cause these problems. However, alcohol-related birth defects are 100% preventable. The safest course for women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant is not to drink alcohol. Graph source: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Removing alcohol from circulation Liver metabolism limited Blood alcohol level falls slowly Alcohol Metabolism Small amounts of alcohol Alcohol dehydrogenase Alcohol acetaldehyde Aldehyde dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde acetate Metabolites acetyl CoA fat Insel, Turner and Ross, Nutrition , 2nd edition Alcohol Metabolism S CoA O Ethanol Acetaldehyde Acetic acid CoA Overview of glucose metabolism Acetyl CoA...
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2010 for the course NUTRI SCI 160 taught by Professor Hellerstein during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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alcohol 2010 - Spotlight on Alcohol Alcoholic fermentation...

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