#13 NS 160 LIPIDS

#13 NS 160 LIPIDS - Dr. Robert Ryan Adjunct Professor...

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Dr. Robert Ryan Adjunct Professor Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology Senior Scientist Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute Office hours: Monday 4 -5 pm 233 Morgan Hall Email: rryan@chori.org www.chori.org
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Biomolecules that are insoluble in water and highly soluble in non-polar organic solvents such as ether, chloroform, and benzene. Lipids
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Fatty acids Structure and physical properties Biosynthesis Elongation and desaturation / essential fatty acids Structural component of triacylglycerols and phospholipids Precursor to eicosanoids Trans fatty acids
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Melting point (°C) 63 70 13 - 9 - 17 - 50
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phosphatidylcholine Glycerophospholipids Polar head group (heterogeneity) Glycerol backbone Two fatty acids (molecular species)
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Phospholipids Functions Component of cell membranes Lipid transport as part of lipoproteins Emulsifiers Food sources Egg yolks, liver, soybeans, peanuts bilayer micelle
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1. Energy source and reserve 2. Insulation and protection 3. Carrier of fat-soluble vitamins 4. Sensory qualities in food Triglyceride
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Triglycerides are stored as large lipid droplets in adipocytes Good storage form for energy because they are more fully reduced than carbohydrate or protein Yield energy (ATP) upon oxidation Adipocytes whyfiles.org/. ../ images/fat_cells.jpgImage
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Triglycerides in Food Avoid saturated fats such as butter, solid shortening and lard Trans fats , found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods and other foods made with or fried in partially hydrogenated oils Replace them with oils such as corn, canola, olive, safflower, soybean and sunflower.
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Saturated fat The American Heart Association's Nutrition Committee advises: Limit total fat intake to less than 25-35 percent of your total calories each day. Limit saturated fat intake to less than 7 percent of total daily calories; Saturated fat is the main dietary cause of high blood cholesterol. Saturated fat is found in foods from animals and some plants, beef, veal, lamb, pork, lard, poultry fat, butter, cream, milk, cheeses
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Essential fatty acids Linoleic acid and α -linolenic acid Must be obtained from the diet Used to make eicosanoids •Sources of omega-6 fatty acids –Vegetable oils –Nuts and seeds •Sources of omega-3 fatty acids –Soybean, canola, walnut, flaxseed oils –Salmon, tuna, mackerel
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Introduction of double bonds (animals versus plant specificity differences) Essential fatty acids Different forms of an 18 carbon fatty acid Stearic acid Oleic acid Linoleic acid α - Linolenic acid
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#13 NS 160 LIPIDS - Dr. Robert Ryan Adjunct Professor...

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