Lect+2.Research+Methods

Lect+2.Research+Methods - 1 PSC1 Spring 2010 Dr Liat Sayfan...

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Unformatted text preview: 4/4/2010 1 PSC1 Spring 2010, Dr. Liat Sayfan t Common sense vs. science t The scientific method t Research designs t Ethical considerations t What is common sense? ◦ Having a ‘guts’ feeling/intuition about a phenomenon c Does distance make the heart grow fonder? c Do opposites attract or do birds of a feather flock together? t We tend to place too much value in our intuition ◦ But we are Biased! c Hindsight bias c Confirmation Bias 4/4/2010 2 t Mr. von Osten, a former teacher, teaches his horse letters & numbers t For every correct answer the horse gets a treat t Horse answers math questions by tapping its hoof t Horse answers yes/no questions by moving its head t The horse can answer questions asked in other language than the one taught t Can answer questions even when Mr. von Osten not there! t Finally - a scientific test: ◦ Psychologist Oskar Pfungst conducts controlled experiments ◦ Hypothesis c Clever Hans doesn’t know the answers c It relies on visual cues ◦ Experiments results c Can only answer correctly if its eyes were not covered c Can only answered correctly if the person asking the question knew the answer t What were the cues? 4/4/2010 3 t Observer Expectancy Effects ◦ Our expectations of others’ behavior can affect their actual behavior!! ◦ A form of “self fulfilling prophecy” ◦ This can occur unconsciously t How do we compensate for expectancy effects and other biases? ◦ Be skeptical c Try to disprove theories c Use your critical thinking skills! ◦ Make sure the observer is “blind” to the hypothesis being tested ◦ Test a counter-hypothesis c Try to prove yourself wrong!!!...
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Lect+2.Research+Methods - 1 PSC1 Spring 2010 Dr Liat Sayfan...

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