GEOPHONE - A Presentation Report On Single &...

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A Presentation Report On Single & Three-component geophones Supervision of… Dr.A.Chaouch Submitted by. .. Mohd Sadiq & Satish Maurya M.Sc (Applied Geophysics) Department of EarthSciences IIT BOMBAY
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CONTENTS 1. Abstract 2. Principle of the Geophone 3. Working of Geophone 4. Polarization 5. Single-component geophones 6. Three-component geophone 7. Natural Frequency 8. Field-lay out 9. References
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Abstract : The ground vibration is detected and amplified by a sensor, called the seismometer or, in exploration seismology, the geophone . In modern instruments the vibration is amplified and filtered electronically. The seismometer makes use of the principle of inertia . If a heavy mass is only loosely coupled to the ground (for example, by suspending it from a wire like a pendulum in fig. ), the motion of the Earth caused by a seismic wave is only partly transferred to the mass. While the ground vibrates, the inertia of the heavy mass assures that it does not move as much, if at all. The seismometer amplifies and records the relative motion between the mass and the ground.
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A s eismic wave possesses certain properties which can act upon transducers, enabling the wave to be detected together with its frequency and relative amplitude. The detectable elements of wavemotion are - Displacement Pressure Velocity Acceleration The seismic transducer, or seismometer, is called a Geophone when used on land and a Hydrophone when used in a marine environment. In a seismic practice associated with the oil-industry, velocity- sensitive geophones are almost invariably used on land and in boreholes. Pressure-sensitive hydrophones are used in marshes or water. Principle of the Geophone : Geophones are designed to react to motion of the Earth in a given direction. Mechanical instruments record the amplified displacement of the ground; electromagnetic instruments respond to the velocity of ground motion. Depending on the design, either type may respond to vertical or horizontal motion. Some modern electromagnetic instruments are constructed so as to record simultaneously three orthogonal components of motion. Most designs employ variations on the simple harmonic oscillator principle.
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Workin g: The
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course EARTH SCIE APPLIED GE taught by Professor Es during the Spring '09 term at IIT Bombay.

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GEOPHONE - A Presentation Report On Single &...

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