PropertiesOfGasesLectureNotes

PropertiesOfGasesLectureNotes - 1 Properties of Gases Dr...

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1 Properties of Gases Dr Claire Vallance First year, Hilary term Suggested Reading Physical Chemistry , P. W. Atkins Foundations of Physics for Chemists , G. Ritchie and D. Sivia Physical Chemistry , W. J. Moore University Physics , H. Benson Course synopsis 1. Introduction - phases of matter 2. Characteristics of the gas phase Examples Gases and vapours 3. Measureable properties of gases Pressure Measurement of pressure Temperature Thermal equilibrium and temperature measurements 4. Experimental observations – the gas laws The relationship between pressure and volume The effect of temperature on pressure and volume The effect of the amount of gas Equation of state for an ideal gas 5. Ideal gases and real gases The ideal gas model The compression factor Equations of state for real gases 6. The kinetic theory of gases 7. Collisions with the container walls – determining pressure from molecular speeds 8. The Maxwell Boltzmann distribution revisited Mean speed, most probable speed and rms speed of the particles in a gas 9. Collisions (i) Collisions with the container walls (ii) Collisions with other molecules Mean free path Effusion and gas leaks Molecular beams 10. Transport properties of gases Flux Diffusion Thermal conductivity Viscosity
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2 1. Introduction - phases of matter There are four major phases of matter: solids, liquids, gases and plasmas. Starting from a solid at a temperature below its melting point, we can move through these phases by increasing the temperature. First, we overcome the bonds or intermolecular forces locking the atoms into the solid structure, and the solid melts. At higher temperatures we overcome virtually all of the intermolecular forces and the liquid vapourises to form a gas (depending on the ambient pressure and on the phase diagram of the substance, it is sometimes possible to go directly from the solid to the gas phase in a process known as sublimation). If we increase the temperature to extremely high levels, there is enough energy t:o ionise the substance and we form a plasma. This course is concerned solely with the properties and behaviour of gases. As we shall see, the fact that interactions between gas phase particles are only very weak allows us to use relatively simple models to gain virtually a complete understanding of the gas phase. 2. Characteristics of the gas phase The gas phase of a substance has the following properties: 1. A gas is a collection of particles in constant, rapid, random motion (sometimes referred to as ‘Brownian’ motion). The particles in a gas are constantly undergoing collisions with each other and with the walls of the container, which change their direction hence the ‘random’. If we followed the trajectory of a single particle within a gas, it might look something like the figure on the right. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course CHE 3051 taught by Professor Sitimachmud during the Spring '08 term at National Central University.

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PropertiesOfGasesLectureNotes - 1 Properties of Gases Dr...

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