Chapter 1 - Matter and Measurement

Chapter 1 - Matter and Measurement - Chapter One...

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1 Chapter One Introduction: Matter and Measurement • Classifications and Properties of Matter • Units of Measurement • Uncertainty in Measurement • Dimensional Analysis Chemistry: Chemistry: The study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
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2 Scientific Method Scientific Method Hypothesis: a tentative explanation or prediction based on experimental observations . Sometimes an original hypothesis becomes a law if it has been repeated numerous times by many different scientists over an extended period of time. Theory: a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and the laws based on them. Matter Matter • Matter- Anything that has mass and occupies space. •A tom s are the building blocks of matter. Made up of protons, neutrons & electrons. •Ea ch element is made of the same kind of atom. compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements. • Molecules are groups of atoms held together with a specific connectivity and shape.
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3 Ethanol Stoichiometry = C 2 H 6 O Melting Point = -115 ºC Boiling Point = 78 ºC Density = 0.79 g/cm 3 Dimethyl Ether Stoichiometry = C 2 H 6 O Melting Point = -140 ºC Boiling Point = -24 ºC Density = Gas Structure - tells us which atoms are connected (bonded) to each other, how far apart they are, and the shape of the molecule. States of Matter States of Matter
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4 Matter, Pure Substance, and Elements Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass. Pure Substance Matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties; it cannot be separated by physical processes. Elements Cannot be subdivided by chemical or physical processes into simpler substances. Sodium Bromine Aluminum The Language of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry • The elements, their names, and symbols are given on the PERIODIC TABLE • For which elements should I know their names? It’s best to learn the main group elements (colored), the first row transition metals (grey), and a few other common elements (also grey)
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5 Know these common elements: names and symbols. -origin optional First letter is always capitalized, second lower case Compounds & Mixtures Compounds & Mixtures Compounds Contains more than one type of atom, but all molecules (or repeat units) are the same, i.e. water (H 2 O), ethanol (C 2 H 6 O), quartz (SiO 2 ), sodium chloride (NaCl). All compounds follow the law of constant composition . Mixture Have variable composition and can be separated into component parts by physical methods. Mixtures contain more than one kind of molecule, and their properties depend on the relative amount of each component present in the mixture.
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6 Ne N 2 SO 3 Homogeneous
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 3150:153 taught by Professor Hu,jun during the Spring '10 term at Kent State.

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Chapter 1 - Matter and Measurement - Chapter One...

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