Chapter 4 - Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4 - Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry -...

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1 Chapter Four: Aqueous Chapter Four: Aqueous Reactions and Solution Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Stoichiometry • Ionic Compounds in Aqueous Solution •Mo lar i ty • Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solution • Chemical Analysis by Titration and Gravimetric Analysis Solutions Solutions Solution : A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. Solvent : compound that has the same physical state as the solution - frequently a liquid. Solute : substance being dissolved. Strong electrolyte : compound that completely dissociates into ions in water. Weak electrolyte : molecule that produces only a few ions when dissolved in water.
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2 Dissociation Dissociation • When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them. • This process is called dissociation . Electrolytes Electrolytes • Substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. •A nonelectrolyte may dissolve in water, but it does not dissociate into ions when it does so.
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3 Electrolytes and Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Nonelectrolytes Soluble ionic compounds tend to be electrolytes. Molecular compounds tend to be nonelectrolytes, except for acids and bases. Electrolytes Electrolytes •A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water. weak electrolyte only dissociates partially when dissolved in water.
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4 Strong Electrolytes Are Strong Electrolytes Are • Strong acids and strong bases Solubility Determined by Experiment NiCl 2 Hg 2 Cl 2 CoCl 2 Fe(NO 3 ) 3 NaNO 3 Cr(NO 3 ) 3
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5 You need to know the solubility guidelines on this table. Solubility of Ionic Compounds Solubility of Ionic Compounds Predict the solubility of (a) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and (b) PbCl 2 . (a) All NH 4 + compounds are soluble, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 is soluble in water. (b) Most Cl - compounds are soluble except those of Ag + , Pb 2+ and Hg 2 2+ , PbCl 2 is insoluble in water.
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6 Precipitation Reactions Precipitation Reactions •A precipitation reaction involves the formation of an insoluble product or products from the reaction of soluble reactants. •Examp le: M ix ing AgNO 3 and LiCl, both of which are soluble, produces insoluble AgCl. AgNO 3 (aq) + LiCl(aq) AgCl(s) + LiNO 3 (aq) Precipitation Reactions Precipitation Reactions
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7 Precipitation Reactions Precipitation Reactions What insoluble compound, if any, will form when solutions of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and Na 2 SO 4 are mixed? Write the chemical equation. Anions Cations Na + Pb 2+ NO 3 - soluble NaNO 3 soluble Pb(NO 3 ) 2 SO 4 2- soluble Na 2 SO 4 insoluble PbSO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + Na 2 SO 4(aq) PbSO 4(s) + 2NaNO 3(aq) Metathesis (Exchange) Reactions Metathesis (Exchange) Reactions • Metathesis comes from a Greek word that means “to transpose” • It appears the ions in the reactant compounds exchange, or transpose, ions Ag NO 3 ( aq ) + K Cl ( aq ) ⎯→ AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq )
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8 Ionic Equation Ionic Equation • In the ionic equation all strong electrolytes (strong acids, strong bases, and soluble ionic salts) are dissociated into their ions.
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 3150:153 taught by Professor Hu,jun during the Spring '10 term at Kent State.

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Chapter 4 - Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry -...

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