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Chapter 10 - Gases

# Chapter 10 - Gases - Chapter 10 Gases Characteristics of...

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1 Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Gases Gases Characteristics of Gases Characteristics of Gases • Unlike liquids and solids, gases –e x p a n d s p o n t a n

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2 • Pressure is the amount of force applied to an area. Pressure Pressure •A tmospher ic pressure is the weight of air per unit of area. P = F A • Pascals – 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 •Bar –1 b a r = 1 0 5 Pa = 100 kPa Units of Pressure Units of Pressure • mm Hg or torr –These units are literally the difference
3 Standard Pressure Standard Pressure • Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is referred to as standard pressure . • It is equal to ± 1.00 atm ± 760 torr (760 mm Hg) ± 101.325 kPa Manometer Manometer This device is used to measure the difference in pressure between atmospheric pressure and that of a gas in a vessel.

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4 To describe gases, we need To describe gases, we need • P, pressure of the container P, pressure of the container V , volume of the container , volume of the container T , Kelvin temperature of the gas , Kelvin temperature of the gas n , number of molecules in the , number of molecules in the container container Boyle Boyle ’s Law s Law The volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure.
5 As As P and and V are are inversely proportional inversely proportional A plot of V versus P results in a curve. Since V = k (1/ P ) This means a plot of V versus 1/ P will be a straight line. PV = k Charles Charles ’s Law s Law • The volume of a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. A plot of V versus T will be a straight line. • i.e., V T = k

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6 Charles Charles ’s Law s Law Balloons immersed in liquid N 2 (at -196 ˚C) will shrink as the air cools (and is liquefied). Avogadro
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Chapter 10 - Gases - Chapter 10 Gases Characteristics of...

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