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5 - ICS103 Programming in C Lecture 5 Introduction to...

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1 ICS103 Programming in C Lecture 5: Introduction to Functions
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2 Outline Introduction to Functions Predefined Functions and Code Reuse User-defined void Functions without Arguments Function Prototypes Function Definitions Placement of Functions in a Program Program Style
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3 Introduction to Functions So far, we have learnt how to use operators, +, -, *, / and % to form simple arithmetic expressions. However, we are not yet able to write many other mathematical expressions we are used to. For example, we cannot yet represent any of the following expressions in C: C does not have operators for “square root”, “absolute value”, sine, log, etc. Instead, C provides program units called functions to carry out these and other mathematical operations.
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4 Introduction to Functions … A function can be thought of as a black box that takes one or more input arguments and produces a single output value. For example, the following shows how to use the sqrt function that is available in the standard math library: y = sqrt (x); If x is 16, the function computes the square root of 16. The result, 4, is then assigned to the variable y. The expression part of the assignment statement is called function call . Another example is: z = 5.7 + sqrt (w); If w = 9, z is assigned 5.7 + 3, which is 8.7.
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5 Example /* Performs three square root computations */ #include <stdio.h> /* definitions of printf, scanf */ #include <math.h> /* definition of sqrt */ int main(void) { double first, second, /* input - two data values */ first_sqrt, /* output - square root of first input */ second_sqrt, /* output - square root of second input */ sum_sqrt; /* output - square root of sum */ printf("Enter a number> "); scanf("%lf", &first); first_sqrt = sqrt(first); printf("Square root of the number is %.2f\n", first_sqrt); printf("Enter a second number> "); scanf("%lf", &second); second_sqrt = sqrt(second); printf("Square root of the second number is %.2f\n", second_sqrt); sum_sqrt = sqrt(first + second); printf("Square root of the sum of the 2 numbers is %.2f\n",sum_sqrt); return (0); }
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6 Predefined Functions and Code Reuse The primary goal of software engineering is to write error-free code.
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