Chemistry_1031_day15_022509_actual

Chemistry_1031_day15_022509_actual - General Chemistry I...

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General Chemistry I CHE-1031 Dr. Jonathan M. Smith Wednesday, February 25
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Today • Solutions to solutions…
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Our oceans… http://pubs.acs.org/cen/science/87/8708sci2.html Unexpected Growth Coccolithophores like these may prosper in high-CO2 seas. Losing Nemo Acidified seawater disrupts the homing ability of orange clownfish.
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Solutions Chapter 4
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5 Salt vs. Sugar Dissolved in Water ionic compounds dissociate into ions when they dissolve molecular compounds do not dissociate when they dissolve
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6 Acids • acids are molecular compounds that ionize when they dissolve in water – the molecules are pulled apart by their attraction for the water – when acids ionize, they form H + cations and anions • the percentage of molecules that ionize varies from one acid to another • acids that ionize virtually 100% are called strong acids HCl( aq ) H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) • acids that only ionize a small percentage are called weak acids HF( aq ) H + ( aq ) + F - ( aq )
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7 Strong and Weak Electrolytes strong electrolytes are materials that dissolve completely as ions – ionic compounds and strong acids – their solutions conduct electricity well weak electrolytes are materials that dissolve mostly as molecules, but partially as ions – weak acids – their solutions conduct electricity, but not well • when compounds containing a polyatomic ion dissolve, the polyatomic ion stays together Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) 2 Na + ( aq ) + SO 4 2- ( aq ) HC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - ( aq )
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8 Classes of Dissolved Materials
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9 Solubility of Ionic Compounds • some ionic compounds, like NaCl, dissolve very well in water at room temperature • other ionic compounds, like AgCl, dissolve hardly at all in water at room temperature • compounds that dissolve in a solvent are said to be soluble , while those that do not are said to be insoluble – NaCl is soluble in water, AgCl is insoluble in water – the degree of solubility depends on the temperature – even insoluble compounds dissolve, just not enough to be meaningful
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10 When Will a Salt Dissolve? • Predicting whether a compound will dissolve in water is not easy • The best way to do it is to do some experiments to test whether a compound will dissolve in water, then develop some rules based on those experimental results – we call this method the empirical method
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Compounds Containing the Following Ions are Generally Soluble Exceptions (when combined with ions on the left the compound is insoluble) Li + , Na + , K + , NH 4 + none NO 3 , C 2 H 3 O 2 none Cl , Br
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course CHEM 1031 taught by Professor Thomas during the Spring '06 term at Temple.

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Chemistry_1031_day15_022509_actual - General Chemistry I...

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