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Unformatted text preview: Deviance in Sport
Chapter 6 Coakley, 2007 What counts as deviance in sports? Should this be left to people in sports, or is it a community issue? SUPPOSE...... Ask two strangers that you meet in the Union if you can take a bite of their food or a sip of their coffee. Find one male and one female and ask them the following question: "Do you know Jesus?" Ask someone of the same gender if you can give them a hug. Defining Deviance in Sport Deviance ALWAYS involves violating a norm Norm socially constructed range of what is considered socially acceptable behavior: actions, traits or idea. Deviance an action, trait or idea that falls outside a range of acceptance as determined by people with the power to enforce norms in a social world Brainstorm List what are established as norms in the sport you are most familiar with. Problems Studying Deviance Studying deviance in sports presents problems for three reasons: (1) types & causes of deviance are diverse no single theory to explain all of them hazing team members and forcing them to do illegal things turning in coursework prepared by others destroying hotel property during a road trip after an embarrassing loss or a difficult win Brainstorm Identify types of deviance in the sport/level/gender that you are most familiar with Is it high school, college, or professional? Male of female? Football, soccer, golf, track & field, rugby? i.e. male college athletes:
talking back to a coach at practice running wind sprints to the point of vomiting Problems Studying Deviance Studying deviance in sports presents problems for three reasons: (2) actions that are accepted in sports may be deviant in other spheres of society and actions accepted in society may be deviant in sports ice hockey players would be arrested for actions they define as normal during the game fans act in ways that would quickly alienate friends and family members if athletes take nutritional supplements used by nonathletes, they may be banned from their sport Problems Studying Deviance Studying deviance in sports presents problems for three reasons: (3) often involves an unquestioned acceptance of norms and what it means to be an athlete, rather than a rejection and their deviance often involves... Overconformity: when young men go too far in conforming to expectations and use banned substances to become bigger and stronger Constructionist Approach p. 157 In definition of deviance must take into account the process of identifying and responding to actions, traits and ideas deals with conformity Norms are socially constructed as people interact with each other and determine a range of accepted actions, traits and ideas that are consistent with their values. Deviance is socially constructed as people negotiate the limits of what they will accept and then identify actions, traits and ideas that go beyond those limits. Most actions, traits, ideas in a social world fall into a normally accepted range if not... Constructionist Approach p. 157 Three levels: Underconformity deviance based on ignoring or rejecting norms Normally accepted range of action that which is considered social acceptable actions, traits and ideas Overconformity deviance based on accepting and conforming to norms without question and being willing to follow them to extreme degrees
after Hurricane Katrina Most of our actions fall within the range of acceptance FIGURE 6.3 Two types of deviance in sports. Deviant Overconformity in Sport Research shows deviant overconformity occurs often in sports List some examples of deviant overconformity in sports in general. Deviant Overconformity in Sport Examples of deviant overconformity: Athletes prepare so intensely that they ignore the needs of family members Selfinjurious overtraining Unhealthy eating behaviors and weight control strategies Commitments to playing sports with pain and injury The Sport Ethic and Deviance Sport ethic a set of norms accepted as the dominant criteria for defining what is required to be accepted as an athlete in power and performance sports. Consists of the following four norms: (p. 161) Athlete is dedicated to the "game" above all else Athlete strives for distinction Athlete accepts risks and plays through pain Athlete accepts no obstacles in the pursuit of possibilities Athlete is dedicated to the "game" above all else Coaches' pep talks and locker room slogans are full of references to these norms Must prove their love of the game by giving priority to it over all other interests Proper attitude Unwavering commitment Sacrifices Facing demands of competition without question Athlete strives for distinction being an athlete means seeking to improve and achieve perfection The Olympic motto: "swifter, higher, stronger" capures the meaning of this norm Athlete accepts risks and plays through pain according to this norm, an athlete does not "give in" to pressure, pain or fear coaches look for players willing to take risks and play through pain it illustrates that overconformity to the norms of the sport ethic is valued on their teams Olympic gymnast Kerri Stuggs Athlete accepts no obstacles in the pursuit of possibilities this norm stresses "the dream" and the obligation to pursue it without question i.e of overconformity to this norm Indianapolis 500 winner Buddy Lazier Why the deviant overconformity? Reasons: Most athletes do not see overconformity to the sport ethic as deviance because it is required to reaffirm their identities as athletes and retain membership in a special group Deviance Research Looks at a number of issues in a number of areas of sport Deviance on the field of play or in the realm of sport Bench clearing brawls, cheating (corked bat, drugs, recruiting violations, gambling, etc) History shows that this is less common today than in the days before television; onthefield deviance is more likely to be punished Today, there are more ways to be deviant in sports! Evident more in power & performance sports More prevalent at higher levels & more men than women Deviance Research Looks at a number of issues in a number of areas of sport Deviance off the field and away from sport Examples such as: assaults, criminal activity make headlines and become lead stories Research does not show if rates of offthefield deviance have gone up or down or if general crime rates are higher among athletes than other comparable people in the general population DON'T FORGET
Athletes are not the only ones in sports who engage in deviant behavior. Think of other examples involving:
Coaches Administrators Team owners Agents ...
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- Spring '09