final exam study guide2

final exam study guide2 - PSYC 100- Final Exam Scientific...

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Unformatted text preview: PSYC 100- Final Exam Scientific Research 1. Empiricism : test our ideas of the world against our experiences of the world a. Experience can be flawed b. There needs to be sound research 2. Descarte a. I think there for I am b. We have ideas that are clear to everyone so they must be t rue 3. Freud a. Great man approach i. Your theories are right and everyone else is wrong b. Didnt test their ideas 4. Rationalism a. Have your own theories and they must be true Experimental Research 5. Daniel Shackter- Experiment Example a. Humans are social and like to be with others i. WHY? To reduce anxiety, it distracts them b. How was it tested? i. People were told they were part of a learning experiment about memory ii. Told they would experience an electric shock if they got it wrong iii. Two Groups 1. Told it was a minor shock (low anxiety) 2. Told it was a hurtful shock (high anxiety) iv. Groups were told they had to wait while they set up the experiment and could wait in one of two places 1. A room with lots of people 2. A room by themselves c. According to the theory the people with high anxiety will go to the room with other people. Not all of them but a large proportion. d. Variables? i. Independent: whether the shock is high or low (anxiety level) ii. Dependent: what room the subject goes in e. Results i. 60% of high anxiety people choose to wait with others ii. 30% of low anxiety people choose to wait with others f. Conclusions i. When people are anxious they want to be around others to get rid of anxiety 1. NOT TRUE: cannot determine this from results 2. Experiment doesnt show it is to get rid of anxiety 3. Just shows they go to the room with others 6. DONT DRAW CONCLUSIONS THE EXPERIMENT DOESNT SUPPORT 7. Theory : broad statement regarding how the world works 8. Hypothesis : theory is correct!!! a. Same for every experiment b. Experiment must work correctly c. No other interfering variables 9. Prediction is always about the dependent variable, what the experimenter expects to observe a. Independent x-axis b. Dependent y-axis 10.Control Group : something to compare it to 11.Experimental Group : group with variable 12.Test : run the experiment and report results 13.Analysis: what you can conclude from results 14.Extraneous Variables : any variable that can affect the dependent variable other than the independent variable a. Ex : condition of the room, mood of people in room, types of people in experiment (gender, age, personality) 15. CAUSAL CONCLUSIONS experimental research is done to find these 16.Limitations : anything that prevents the experiment from being conducted a. Ex. Time constraints, funding, ethics 17. Learning Curve a. Steep easy to learn b. Flat hard to learn 1. Therapy Example a. Theory- have a NEW therapy that treats depression b. Prediction- the people who take this therapy will no longer be depressed c. Test i. Give 50 people NEW therapy ii. Give 50 people old therapy d. Variables i. Independent- therapy ii. Dependent- depressionii....
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final exam study guide2 - PSYC 100- Final Exam Scientific...

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