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Lab Report Template

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Insert TITLE here Insert NAME and SECTION NUMBER here Insert ABSTRACT here Introduction Diabetes is on the rise as a serious health threat to young people, with diagnosis of symptoms formerly found mostly in adults becoming more frequent in teenagers and young children (Debelea et al. 2007; Hsia et al. 2009). Diabetes can lead to a number of health problems including impaired kidney function or ultimately kidney failure if not properly managed. Moderate kidney dysfunction can prevent normal regulation of the acid-base balance in the blood and result in a condition known as metabolic acidosis ( Kovacic 2003; Uribarri 2000). Over time, metabolic acidosis can in turn result in problems with mineral homeostasis and cause a loss of bone density (Alpern and Sakhaee 1997; Kraut 2000; Weger et al., 2000). In adults this causes osteoporosis, but in children and teenagers impaired bone development may cause growth retardation (Alpern and Sakhaee 1997; Kovacic 2003). Minerals stored in bone as hydroxyapatite are used to dynamically buffer changes in blood pH that exceed the capacity of respiratory CO 2 to modulate ( Arnett, 2008). Minerals are continuously added to bone by osteoblasts, and may be liberated by osteoclasts in response to acidic blood pH (Arnett, 2008). Previous studies have established a correlation between mutations or deficiencies in activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) and defects in bone mineralization in children, suggesting a key
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role for AP in normal bone development (for example Henthorn et al, 1992).
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