Digestive System - The abdominal Cavity o Bordered...

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The abdominal Cavity o Bordered superiorly by the diaphragm o Bordered inferiorly by the pelvic cavity o Lined by the peritoneum Serous membrane Functions of the Digestive System o Ingestion o Mechanical processing: Chewing, churning Makes materials easier to propel along digestive tract o Secretion: The release of water, acids, enzymes and buffers by cells of epithelial Functions of the digestive system o Digestion The chemical breakdown of food into small fragments o Absorption Movement of organic substrates, ions, vitamins, and water From the lumen Across the cells of the epithelial lining Into interstitial fluid (and blood vessels) o Excretion Removal of waste products The impressive lining of the digestive tract** General organization of the digestive tract o The four major layers of the digestive tract from inside to outside: Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis Serosa Mucosa o The inner lining of the digestive tract o Consists of its own three layers: Epithelium Lamina propria Loose connective tissue Muscularis mucosae A thin smooth muscle layer Surface epithelium o The epithelium is either Stratified Simple columnar o Depending on location function etc
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Surface epithelium o Oral cavity, pharynx, exophagus and anus: Function Ingestion Transport along the length of the tube Lined with stratified epithelium For protection Surface epithelium o Stomach, small intestine, and large intestine: Function: Digestion Absorption Are lined with simple columnar epithelium For rapid transport across the epithelial lining Lamina Propria o Deep to the epithelial layer o Loose connective tissue o Contains Small blood vessels Small lymphatic vessels and lymphoid tissue Small sensory and motor nerves Submucosa o Dense irregular connective tissue o Contains large blood vessels Submucosal nerve plexus o Sense chemical changes in the lumen Muscularis o Smooth muscle o Involved in Peristalsis o Contains a nerve plexus Myenteric Nerve plexus o Contains Sensory neurons Sense muscle stretch Motor neurons Coordinate peristalsis
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