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Unformatted text preview: 1 LAST TIME • Peopling of the Americas • Central American and South American Pre-Columbian Societies Today 1. Encounter, Depopulation, and Exchange 2. Spanish Colonialism 3. Political Independence 4. Neo-Colonial Development 5. Exam 1 Review From Iberia to the New World • Impacts for Americans h Language h Agriculture h Racial mixing h Strong leader type of governance h Rigid (lower) class for women B. Encounter,Depopulation, and Exchange Amerindian Population Collapse • Uncertainty in estimates of pre- Colombian populations => more uncertainty about early colonial losses (best in C Mexico, Guatemala, and parts of Peru) • Scale of collapse – in most places roughly a 90% loss! Amerindian Population Collapse Pre-Columbian (i.e., 1491) 1. North America – 3.8 m 2. Mexico – 17+ m 3. Central America – 5-6 m 4. Caribbean – 3 m 5. Andes – 15+ m 6. Lowland south America - 9-10 m 7. Total Western Hemisphere -50+ m Low point about 1650 1. North America – 0.25 m 2. Mexico – 2 m 3. Central America – 0.6 m 4. Caribbean – virtually 0 m 5. Andes – 1.5 m 6. Lowland south America - 0.8 m 7. Total Western Hemisphere –5 m Amerindian Population Collapse • Causes Introduced infectious diseases WHY?- Small original populations- Polar route means no tropical diseases- Little animal domestication- Amerindians closely related, viruses would kill all- Not genetically inferior! 2 smallpox Basin of Mexico Indigenous Population collapse 1510 - 1625 Conquest Columbian “Encounter” or “Exchange” • Amerindian domesticated crops & animals • Impacts of Amerindian crops • Old World crops and animals to the Americas Myths of Conquest? The Spaniards are perfectly right to govern these barbarians of the New World and adjacent islands; they are in prudence, ingenuity, virtue, and humanity as inferior to the Spaniards as children are to adults and women are to men, there being as much difference between them as that between wild and cruel and very merciful persons, the prodigiously intemperate and the continent and tempered, and I daresay from apes to men’- Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (1547), quoted by Matthew Restall (‘Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest’) © T. M. Whitmore Alfred Crosby “My view is that it is nearly impossible to exaggerate the importance of the Encounter. Its significance towers far above the origins of this or that kind of government, or even the fate of this or that group of humans. This Encounter marks one of the major discontinuities in the course of life on this planet. The measuring of its influence requires reference to a scale of time far greater than historians or archaeologists normally need, i.e. reference to what geologists and paleontologists, usually an unpoetic lot, have been calling of late "deep time.” Alfred Crosby: “Rethinking the Encounter: new perspectives on Conquest and Colonization, 1450-1550” Encuentro Quarterly 1988 Amerindian Crops and Animals • FOOD h Maize (corn) h Manioc h Beans...
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- Spring '10
- Americas, T. M. Whitmore