Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences

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Outline of the Course Outline of the Course 1) Review and Definitions 2) Molecules and their Energies 3) 1 st Law of Thermodynamics 4) 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics 5) Gibbs Free Energy 6) Phase Diagrams and REAL Phenomena 7) Non-Electrolyte Solutions & Simple Mixtures 8) Chemical Equilibrium 9) Kinetics
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2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 5 – most of it !
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2 nd Law of Thermodynamics GOALS (1) Understand difference between spontaneous and non-spontaneous (1) Define Entropy (s) in terms of statistical probabilities (2) Define Entropy in terms of thermodynamics (3) Define 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics (4) Calculate Entropy changes for systems undergoing physical change (5) Calculate Entropy changes for phase transitions (6) Calculate Entropy changes for chemical reactions
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2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Why do we need a 2 nd Law………. 1st Law of Thermodynamics…. “Law of Conservation of Energy” …..Energy can neither be created nor destroyed…. .the total amount of Energy in the Universe remains constant. But ….1 st Law doesn’t predict whether or not a process can occur and it doesn’t predict the direction of a process…………. . so we need the 2 nd Law Law …………this Law relies on something called Entropy (S) Entropy (S) ………… ………… changes in Entropy allow us to predict changes in Entropy allow us to predict the the direction of a process direction of a process
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Processes only occur spontaneously in one direction……. under the same conditions the process cannot occur spontaneously in the opposite direction…………. . if it could nothing would ever happen………………… ….a sugar cube melts in a cup of coffee……… …..an ice cube melts in your hand…………………. …..a leaf falls to the ground…………………………. . you won’t see a leaf on the ground rise into the air and makes its own return to the branch on the tree…………. . water will not spontaneously form into an ice cube in your hand……………………………… WHY ?
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A process (e.g. change from state 1 to state 2) occurs spontaneously in only one direction. The reverse (i.e. change from state 2 to state 1) cannot occur spontaneously under the same conditions. If this was not true nothing would ever occur.
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Would it make sense to draw the arrows in the other direction ? Figure 4.2 - Physical Chemistry 7 th Edn. Atkins P., de Paula J.
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Why can Why can ’t the reverse of a spontaneous process occur by itself ? t the reverse of a spontaneous process occur by itself ? ….. an example to understand this………consider a rubber ball held 1 meter from the floor……. .you drop the ball and it bounces……. after every bounce the ball does not rise quite as high……eventually it comes to rest on the floor …………. .
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM223H taught by Professor Macdonald during the Spring '09 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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4 - Outline of the Course 1) Review and Definitions 2)...

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