Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Outline of the Course 1) Review and Definitions 2) Molecules and their Energies 3) 1 st Law of Thermodynamics 4) 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics 5) Gibbs Free Energy 6) Phase Diagrams and REAL Phenomena 7) Non-Electrolyte Solutions 8) Chemical Equilibrium 9) Kinetics
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Phase Diagrams and Real Phenomena : Bringing It All Together P H Y S I C A L E M T R Apply toolbox of concepts and functions (H, S, G) to problems in pharmaceutical science.
Background image of page 2
Section 6.0. Phase Diagrams and Real Phenomena 6.1. Phase Diagrams 6.2. Sample Applications of Thermodynamics/Phase Diagrams in Pharmaceutical Science
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Section 6.1. Phase Diagrams Goals (1) To understand phase equilibria and phase diagrams (2) To review phase diagrams of water and CO 2 (as examples) (3) To review the dependence of G on pressure and temperature
Background image of page 4
Phase Equilibria and Phase Diagrams Phase diagram = map of the pressures and temperatures at which each phase of a substance is the most stable Examples of phase transitions (with no change in chemical composition): Melting, Vaporization and conversion of diamond to graphite In our discussion we will consider pure substances: so remember G = - the spontaneous direction of change will always be towards decreasing G ……. .thus decreasing
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
A phase = a form of matter that is completely uniform in terms of both chemical composition and physical state. Examples: liquid, gas, solid (and for solids there are often various states ; e.g. for carbon: graphite and diamond) A phase transition : spontaneous change of one phase to another occurs at a particular T for a given P Consider H 2 O: ICE Water At 1 atm, below O°C ice is most stable form of H 2 O above O°C water becomes most stable form. T O ° C ice  water T O ° C water ice
Background image of page 6
Transition temperature is the temperature at which the two phases are in equilibrium. ( phase 1 = phase 2 ) • phase with lowest chemical potential is the most stable at a particular temperature Figure taken from Physical Chemistry by Peter Atkins 6 th Edition
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Be careful just because a specific state of a substance is known to be most stable (lowest chemical potential) at a specific T and P doesn’t mean substance will exist in this state……. . relationship between thermodynamics and kinetics For example , at normal temperature and pressure C(graphite) has a lower chemical potential than C(diamond)………. . but the transition from C (diamond) to C (graphite) takes a very very very long time at room temperature…………… We can say there is a “thermodynamic tendency for diamond to change into graphite” but this process is very slow . Figure taken from Physical Chemistry by Peter Atkins 6 th Edition
Background image of page 8
Why is the transition from C (diamond) to C (graphite) so slow ? …..because the mobility of molecules or atoms in the solid state is limited (except at higher temperatures).
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM223H taught by Professor Macdonald during the Spring '09 term at University of Toronto.

Page1 / 56

6 - Outline of the Course 1 Review and Definitions 2...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 10. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online