Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences

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Outline of the Course 1) Review and Definitions 2) Molecules and their Energies 3) 1 st Law of Thermodynamics Conservation of Energy. 4) 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Ever-Increasing Entropy. 5) Gibbs Free Energy 6) Phase Diagrams and REAL Phenomena 7) Non-Electrolyte Solutions 8) Chemical Equilibrium 9) Chemical Kinetics and Rates of Processes
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Section 7.0. Non-Electrolyte Solutions PART I (Chapter 7 in Chang Text – Most of It!)
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Section 7.0. - PART I 7.1. Definition of a Non-Electrolyte Solution 7.2. Units of Concentration 7.3. Partial Molar Volume 7.4. Partial Molar Gibbs Energy 7.5. Thermodynamics of Mixing 7.6. Binary Mixtures of Liquids 7.7. The Properties of Solutions
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In Pharmaceutical Science we are continuously working with mixtures………. 1. Solutions of Drugs e.g. drug dissolved in water drug dissolved in ethanol/water mixture 2. Drug Formulations e.g. drug + excipient (e.g. Pluronic ) in water e.g. drug in nanoparticle (i.e. drug + polymer)
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7.1. Definition of a Non-Electrolyte Solution ……. . solutions that do not contain ionic species ……………… A solution may be defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more components that form a single phase. ………. .we will mostly deal with binary mixtures (i.e. contain two components, A + B) ……….the components of the mixture or solution do not react together chemically (i.e. do not undergo a chemical reaction)………. .
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7.2. Units of Concentration Four different units of concentration: (1) Percent by Weight: percent by weight = weight of solute x 100 weight of solute + weight of solvent = weight of solute x 100 weight of solution (2) Mole Fraction: mole fraction (x i ) = no. of moles of component i no. of moles of all components
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(3) Molarity molarity = no. of moles of solute L solution (4) Molality molality = no. of moles of solute weight of solvent in kg Why do we need so many different ways to express concentration ??? - percent by weight most useful when you don’t have molar mass of solute or if you don’t know purity (e.g. for some macromolecules) - molarity is somewhat dependent on temperature
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Huge Volume of H 2 O Huge Volume of EtOH add one mole water add one mole water volume increases by 18 mL volume increases by 14 mL 7.3. Partial Molar Volume Why is the increase in volume different ???
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Why is the increase in volume different ??? • volume occupied by the water molecules depends on the molecules that surround them …………. .if one mole of water is added to a large volume of water the added water molecules will be surrounded by water ……………if one mole of water is added to a large volume of EtOH so much EtOH is present that the added water molecules will be surrounded by EtOH molecules……………. Definition for partial molar volume =
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM223H taught by Professor Macdonald during the Spring '09 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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7a - Outline of the Course 1) Review and Definitions 2)...

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