10. Atypical Pneumonia

10. Atypical Pneumonia - Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Atypical...

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Atypical Pneumonias Mycoplasma Pneumoniae • Caused by organisms in the family Mycoplasmatceae • Mycoplasma are the smallest free living organisms (only 150-250nm in size) • They are prokaryotes (contain both DNA and RNA) but lack a cell wall • Can be grown without cells present and form a characteristic “fried egg” colonies Mycoplasma Pneumoniae • Epidemiology: – individuals or families become infected (large public outbreaks are unusual) – case appear throughout the year – incidence is about 0.1% worldwide (males=females) – 15-50% of cases are asymptotic Mycoplasma Pneumoniae • Transmission: – Spread by respiratory droplets produced by coughing – Usually introduced into a family by young children – incubation period of 2-3 weeks (can remain in sputum for weeks or months even if treated) – secondary infection rate in families is 64-84% for children, 17 to 41% for adults Mycoplasma Pneumoniae • Clinical: – Pneumonia is seen in 10-20% of cases – age dependent, less common under 2yrs, rare in <6 months – leading cause of pneumonia in 5-14 yr olds – insidious onset of fever, malaise, headache, cough: 5-10% progress to pneumonia – chest X-ray (nasty) and symptoms (mild) frequently don’t match up Mycoplasma Pneumoniae • Extrapulmonary disease – skin rashes (erythema multiforme) – Raynaud’s phenomemon (ischemia in toes, fingers, ears and nose) – cardiac complications – neurological complications – otitis media and builous myringitis (fluid filled sores on the eardrum)
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10. Atypical Pneumonia - Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Atypical...

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