11. Sterilization - Case 1 Sterilization, Disinfection,...

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Sterilization, Disinfection, Antisepsis Allison McGeer, MSc, MD, FRCPC Mount Sinai and Princess Margaret Hospitals Case 1 25 year old male – admitted with exacerbation of Crohn’s disease – treated with (among other things) bowel rest – thus, required total parenteral nutrition (TPN) – while on TPN, developed fever, chills and low blood pressure and was found to have a blood stream infection with Candida tropicalis Case 2 • 3 babies in a neonatal intensive care unit have positive sputum cultures for Ralstonia pickettii DEFINITIONS STERILIZATION The complete elimination or destruction of all forms of microbial life DISINFECTION The elimination from inanimate objects of pathogenic microorganisms, except bacterial endospores DECONTAMINATION (CLEANING) The removal of virulent human pathogens DEFINITIONS - II DEGERMING Mechanical removal of most microbes SANITIZATION Use of a chemical agent to minimize chance of disease transmission DEFINITIONS - III SEPTIC Infected – from the Greek: decay, putric ASEPTIC free of living organisms (free of infection) ANTISEPTIC that which inhibits the growth of microorganisms on skin
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DEFINITIONS - III -CIDE that which kills (eg. germicidal, bactericidal) -STAT that which inhibits growth (e.g. . bacteriostatic, fungistatic) How can microorganisms be killed? 1 Denaturation of proteins (e.g. wet heat, ethylene oxide) 2 Oxidation (e.g. dry heat, hydrogen peroxide) 3 Filtration 4 Interruption of DNA synthesis/repair (e.g. radiation) 5 Interference with protein synthesis (e.g. bleach) 6 Disruption of cell membranes (e.g. phenols) Conditions which affect the efficacy of killing 1 Contact time 2 Temperature 3 Physico-chemical environment (e.g. pH) 4 Type of microorganism 5
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11. Sterilization - Case 1 Sterilization, Disinfection,...

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