17. Ear Nose Throat

17. Ear Nose Throat - Respiratory Tract Infections 2 major...

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Respiratory Tract Infections Respiratory Tract Infections Respiratory Tract Infections 2 major groupings: 1) Upper respiratory tract infections (URI) • nose, pharynx, sinuses, middle ear, epiglottis 2) Lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) • larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, alveoli Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Upper Respiratory Tract Infections • leading cause of visits to physicians and absenteeism from work or school (both children and their parents) • >80% are due to viruses (antibiotics?) • several anatomical defenses against airborne pathogens: • nasal hairs, cilia, mucous • ciliated mucous membrane of throat (traps particles >4-5 λ m) • lymphoid tissue (tonsils, adenoids) Major Bacterial Diseases of Upper Major Bacterial Diseases of Upper Respiratory Tract Respiratory Tract 1 .Pharyngitis (sore throat) / Tonsillitis 2 .Ear infections - Otitis media / externa 3 .Sinusitis 4 .Epiglottitis 5 .Neck infections including abscesses, stomatitis, etc. Pharyngitis Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis and Tonsillitis • Most are due to viruses - “common cold” syndrome • Bacterial agents include Group A Strep., Gonorrhea, Diphtheria, ? Others • Most common during winter months • Humans are the natural reservoir Streptococci Streptococci - Hemolysis Hemolysis on Blood Agar on Blood Agar • 3 major types of hemolysis: •∝ = partial lysis; “greening” •β = complete lysis; clear zone •γ = no lysis; no colour change This is a useful laboratory method to permit initial recognition and presumptive classification and likely virulence
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Streptococci Streptococci - Lancefield Lancefield Grouping System Grouping System • Comes from serologic detection of cell wall polysaccharides or lipoteichoic acids • Alphabetical system (A, B, C, . ....... V)
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course LMP 232 taught by Professor Crandall during the Spring '10 term at University of Toronto.

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17. Ear Nose Throat - Respiratory Tract Infections 2 major...

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