3. Viral Infections of the CNS

3. Viral Infections of the CNS - Viral Infections of the...

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Viral infections of the central nervous system Viral Infections of the Nervous System • Encephalitis • Meningitis • Meningoencephalitis • Poliomyelitis (Paralysis) • Post-infectious encephalomyelitis • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, not really a virus, “slow virus”) Viral Infections of the Nervous System General Considerations: • most viruses invade CNS via blood stream; some reach the CNS by the neural route (eg. Rabies) • in apparent or subclinical disease is most common (eg. polio epidemic only 1/1000 develop signs) • virus lesion in CNS due to 2 mechanisms: • Mainly viral multiplication in cells • Can be due to immune response of the host • specific viral diagnosis often difficult unless other associated sign/symptoms present • must differentiate from other infections (bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, protozoa) Viral Infections of the Nervous System Four main syndromes: 1. Encephalitis - drowsiness, mental confusion, convulsions, focal neurological signs, coma 2. Paralysis - fever, flaccid paralysis (most often lower limbs), headache, neck and back stiffness 3. Aseptic meningitis - mild disease with fever, headache, neck and back stiffness, drowsiness 4. Post-infectious encephalomyelitis - similar to encephalitis Viral Infections of the Nervous System Disease Site Lesions Viruses Encephalitis Brain Destructive lesions in grey matter; neuronal damage Herpes simplex, arboviruses, rabies Paralysis Anterior horn of spinal cord Destructive lesions of lower motor neurons with meningitis Enteroviruses (especially polioviruses) Aseptic meningitis Meninges Inflammation of meninges, cells (lymphocytes) in CSF Enteroviruses, mumps, HSV, HIV, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis, adenovirus Post-infectious encephalomyelitis Brain Perivascular
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course LMP 232 taught by Professor Crandall during the Spring '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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3. Viral Infections of the CNS - Viral Infections of the...

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