8. Vaccines - Objectives What are vaccines Challenges in...

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1 Vaccines Dr. Valérie Sales Pediatrician and Infectious Diseases Specialist February 11, 2009 Objectives What are vaccines? Challenges in developing vaccines Vaccine-preventable illnesses and their complications Impact of vaccination on vaccine-preventable illnesses Review recommendations for vaccination Review general benefits, side-effects and contraindications Vaccination schedule Why vaccinate? Vaccination is one of the greatest advances in medicine and public health Prevents serious diseases Decreases occurrence of diseases and their complications Eradicate certain diseases if possible Vaccines ensure that the immune system is prepared to defend the body against an infection before getting sick Vaccines in Canada are safe and efficacious Vaccines Passive immunizations: Give antibodies to certain diseases, when cannot give vaccine that will allow body to make its own antibodies or need antibodies immediately to prevent infection IgG given IM circulating within 2 days Duration varies; approx 1 month Pooled human plasma or recombinant or equine serum Vaccines Passive immunizations: Prophylaxis: RSV: Palivuzimab in at risk infants Post-exposure prophylaxis with: Hepatitis B: neonates and PEP Rabies: PEP Varicella: immunocompromised or neonates Tetanus: dirty wound in IMC or <1 y.o. Treatment of disease: Botulism antitoxin Vaccines Active immunization: Vaccines contain: Antigens/immunogens: stimulate the desired protective immune response (T and B cells) Adjuvants: enhance the immune response to the antigens; aluminum salts Preservatives Additives and/or residual substances
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2 Vaccines Active immunization: Vaccines can be: Live-attenuated Inactivated or Subunit: Whole killed organism Subunit purified Ag or recombinant Ag Toxoid Conjugate-polysaccharide Vaccines Active immunizations: Vaccines typically induce: T and B cells immune responses Antibody rise within 2-4 weeks Memory cells that will lead to anamnestic response upon exposure to the infection or booster vaccination Mucosal response depending on the vaccine
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course LMP 232 taught by Professor Crandall during the Spring '10 term at University of Toronto.

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8. Vaccines - Objectives What are vaccines Challenges in...

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