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12. Anti-Virals - Antiviral Agents Mechanisms of action i...

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Anti Viral Agents (Non -HIV agents) Antiviral Agents i) Virucidal agents (inactivate intact virus) ii) Antiviral agents (inhibit viral replication) iii) Immunomodulating (augment or modify host response to infection) Mechanisms of action: Anti-Viral Agents verses Antibiotics Virus replication is performed by the host cell’s, bacterial replication is autonomous Antibiotics are frequently produced by other life forms, anti-viral agents are less likely to occur naturally Viral infections can be latent, most bacterial infections are active Possible Targets of Anti-viral Agents DNA synthesis: can viral DNA production be prevented? Processing of viral proteins: can capsomere or coat protein production be prevented? Maturation and release: can enzymes involved in the process be inhibited? Possible Targets of Anti-viral Agents Receptors: can you block entry into the host cell? Penetration and uncoating: can you prevent the virus from unpacking itself? RNA synthesis: can viral mRNA production be prevented? Nucleoside Analogues • Acyclovir Valacyclovir -> Acyclovir Valgancyclovir-> Ganciclovir Famciclovir -> Penciclovir Idoxuridine and Trifluoridine • Ribivarin • Lamivudine • Cidofovir
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Phosphorylation of Acyclovir Acyclovir Thymidine Kinase ACV - MP ACV - DP Cellular Kinase ACV - TP Cellular Kinase ACV binds 200 fold better and is phosphorylated 3 x 10 6
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