13. Diagnosis of Viral Infections

13 Diagnosis of - Diagnostic Virology Why bother It is important information for A Transplantation viral infections HIV severity of infections B

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Diagnostic Virology Diagnostic Virology Why bother? It is important information for: A. Transplantation viral infections HIV severity of infections B. Effective chemotherapy (the choice of anti-viral may depend on the nature of the virus) C. Epidemiology (we need to know what’s out there) Diagnostic Virology Rapid Dx: tests / investigations • allow discontinuation of antibiotics • earlier effective treatment • early detection and management of epidemics • safe transplantation / transfusion Diagnostic Virology Three common methods: 1. Virus isolation 2. Direct detection 3. Serology 4. PCR is coming Diagnostic Virology 1. Virus Isolation: Common methods: •tissue culture •chick embryo • animal inoculation Specimen Collection for Viral Culture • obtain material from infected organ(s) (not always possible or practical) • sampling of multiple sites (eg. resp. tract and urine for measles virus) • definitive diagnosis vs presumptive diagnosis (eg. measles virus vs enteroviruses)
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Specimen Collection for Viral Culture • timing is critical - early sampling to optimize viral recovery • aspirate fluids, exudates, secretions, tissues, washings of upper resp. tract, and stool specimens are best specimens for viral culture • swabs are inferior to aspirates since viruses can be absorbed onto wood Specimen Transport for Viral Culture • sterile, leakproof container for aspirates, fluids, tissues • rapid transport to laboratory • swabs should be placed in viral transport medium (VTM); dry swabs are not acceptable • VTM contains buffer, protein source (eg. glutamine), and antibiotics • store at 4 0 C if delay in transport < 24 hrs; store at -70
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2010 for the course LMP 232 taught by Professor Crandall during the Spring '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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13 Diagnosis of - Diagnostic Virology Why bother It is important information for A Transplantation viral infections HIV severity of infections B

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