17. Malaria - Malaria Malaria mosquito-borne infection...

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Malaria Malaria • mosquito-borne infection caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium • Parasite invades and destroys red blood cells • ~500 Million cases per year, 3 million deaths– mostly children in Sub-Saharan Africa • 17th century Italians named disease: mal = bad aria = air Malaria Etiology - 4 species infect man: 1) Plasmodium falciparum 2) Plasmodium vivax 3) Plasmodium ovale 4) Plasmodium malariae Malaria • eradicated from Europe, U.S.A., Canada, parts of S. America, Australia, Japan, Israel, Hong Kong P. falciparum - Africa, Haiti, New Guinea, S.E. Asia, S. America (~60%) P. vivax - India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Central America (~40%) P. Ovale - Africa, rarely elsewhere (~1%) P. malariae - most malarious areas (~1%) Epidemiology Transmission 1) Bite of female anopheles mosquito 2) Other routes - transfusion of red blood cells - contaminated needles - congenital • Risk - dusk to dawn (mosquito feeding time) - rural areas; swamps - travelers - low altitudes Clinical Manifestations • Incubation period (mosquito bite onset of disease): 2 weeks or longer • Typically - chills, fever, splenomegaly, anemia • “A fever in a person returning from the tropics is malaria until proven otherwise”
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17. Malaria - Malaria Malaria mosquito-borne infection...

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