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24. Fungi 2 - Systemic Mycosis True Pathogens Blastomyces...

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3/24/2010 1 Systemic Mycosis ( The Fungus among us ) Systemic Mycosis True Pathogens: Blastomyces dermatitidis Coccidoides immitis Histoplasma capsulatum Paracoccidioides brasiliensis – are able to infect healthy individuals Systemic mycosis Spores are inhaled into the lungs, germinate, invade and destroy other organs and tissue In healthy individuals they cause mild and self-limiting infections Can be fatal in immuno-compromised patients Coccidioidomycosis Usually caused by Coccidioides immitis Most cases are along the USA/Mexico border (San Joaquin Valley Fever) Fungus grows in soil, produces spores, wind carries spores (1/3 of population is infected) Spores are inhaled Coccidioidomycosis Spores germinate in the lung and form spherules (20-40um) filled with endospores Spherules rupture and release endospores, each of which can lead to a new spherule Can spread to bone, skin, GI, GU in 0.5% of cases Can cause meningitis if they infect the CNS Diagnosis: skin test, serology, culture, direct examination Histoplasmosis Usually caused by Histoplasma capsulatum Fungus grows in the soil and produces conidia which are spread by the wind When inhaled they germinate into yeast-like cells which multiple within macrophages Infections can present as benign (90%) -> self-limiting ->chronic ->progressive -> fatal
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