Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds Acids and Bases...

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1 Chapter 2: Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Need a description of fundamental ways chemists account for reactivity Have to set the scene for understanding specific reactions discussed in subsequent chapters
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2 Some covalent bonds have ionic character These are Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity
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3 Electronegativity (EN): Differences in EN Atom EN based on an arbitrary scale Bond Polarity and Electronegativity
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4 The Periodic Table and Electronegativity
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5 Non-polar covalent: atoms with similar EN Polar covalent: difference of < 2 in EN of atoms Ionic: Difference of > 2 in EN Inductive effect: Bond Types and Inductive Effects
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6 Electrostatic potential maps show Colors indicate Arrows indicate Electrostatic Potential Maps
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7 Whole molecules often polar from Strongly polar substances Non-polar substances Dipole moment ( µ ) - net molecular polarity, due to Polar Covalent Bonds: Dipole Moments
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8 Dipole Moments in Organic Compounds
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9 In symmetrical molecules Effects of local dipoles Absence of Dipole Moments
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