This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: 2-1The four financial statements contained in most annual reports are the balance sheet, income statement, statement of retained earnings, and statement of cash flows.2-2No, because the $20 million of retained earnings would probably not be held as cash. The retained earnings figure represents the reinvestment of earnings by the firm. Consequently, the $20 million would be an investment in all of the firm’s assets.2-3The balance sheet shows the firm’s financial position on a specific date, for example, December 31, 2002. It shows each account balance at that particular point in time. For example, the cash account shown on the balance sheet would represent the cash the firm has on hand and in the bank on December 31, 2002. The income statement, on the other hand, reports on the firm’s operations over a period of time, for example, over the last 12 months. It reports revenues and expenses that the firm has incurred over that particular time period. For example, the sales figures reported on the income statement for the period ending December 31, 2002, would represent the firm’s sales over the period from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2002, not just sales for December 31, 2002.2-4The emphasis in accounting is on the determination of accounting income, or net income, while the emphasis in finance is on net cash flow. Net cash flow is the actual net cash that a firm generates during some specified period. The value of an asset (or firm) is determined by the cash flows generated. Cash is necessary to purchase assets to continue operations and to pay dividends. Thus, financial managers should strive to maximize cash flows available to investors over the long run.Although companies with relatively high accounting profits generally have a relatively high cash flow, the relationship is not precise. A business’s net cash flow generally differs from net income because some of the expenses and revenues listed on the income statement are not paid out or received in cash during the year. The relationship between net cash flow and net income can be expressed as:Net cash flow = Net income + Non-cash charges - Non-cash revenues.The primary examples of non-cash charges are depreciation and amorti-zation. These items reduce net income but are not paid out in cash, so we add them back to net income when calculating net cash flow. Likewise, some revenues may not be collected in cash during the year, and these items must be subtracted from net income when calculating net cash flow. Typically, depreciation and amortization represent the largest non-cash items, and in many cases the other non-cash items roughly net to zero. For this reason, many analysts assume that net cash flow equals net income plus depreciation and amortization....
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 05/10/2010 for the course FMT 0438310384 taught by Professor Hung during the Spring '10 term at Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus.
- Spring '10