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Chem 209 ch 10 notes

Chem 209 ch 10 notes - Chem 209 ch.10 notes 10-2 A sharing...

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Chem 209 ch.10 notes 10-2 - A sharing of a single pair of electrons between bonded atoms produces a single covalent bond. -The term “bond pair” applies to a pair of electrons in a bond -The term “lone pair” applies to a pair of electrons not in a bond. - A coordinate covalent bond is when an atom contributes both of the electrons to a shared pair. - It is impossible to say which bond in a molecule is the coordinate covalent bond though. - Double and triple covalent bonds are multiple covalent bonds. -Double bonds share two pairs of electrons -Triple bonds share three pairs. - Triple covalent bonds are very hard to break, so molecules with triple covalent bonds are usually inert. - When a question mark is put next to a structure, it signifies a doubt in the validity of structure. - (For example, when a molecule is paramagnetic (unpaired e-‘s) ) 10-3 - The previous definitions of ionic and covalent bonds are slightly not correct. - Usually chemical bonds are not 100% ionic or covalent. - A covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally is a polar covalent bond. - In polar covalent bonds, electrons are displaced more towards the nonmetallic element. - As a result, there will be a partial negative charge on the nonmetallic element and a partial positive charge on the positive element. - An electrostatic potential map is a way to visualize the charge distribution of a molecule. - Electrostatic potential is the work done in moving a unit of positive charge at a constant speed from one region to another. - An electrostatic potential is found by hypothetically probing an electron density with a positive charge. - A positive charge will be attracted to an electron rich region (negative charge). So, the electrostatic potential will be negative (because it is work done to move a positive charge, and less work needs to be done because the negative charge aids in moving it).
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